Combo with ch 55 Pretest and 27 others

1002 terms by cboucher77 

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Which of the following is an ecosystem? (see book section: Overview: Cool Ecosystem)

all of the angelfish in your aquarium
all of the organisms living in your aquarium
all of the angelfish on the planet
all of the organisms living in your aquarium and the abiotic factors with which they interact
the water, temperature, rocks, and other abiotic components of the aquarium

all of the organisms living in your aquarium and the abiotic factors with which they interact

The biggest difference between the flow of energy and the flow of chemical nutrients in an ecosystem is that _____. (see book section: Concept 55.1: Physical laws govern energy flow and chemical cycling in ecosystems)

the amount of energy is much greater than the amount of nutrients
energy is recycled, but nutrients are not
organisms always need nutrients, but they don't always need energy
nutrients are recycled, but energy is not
organisms always need energy, but they don't always need nutrients

nutrients are recycled, but energy is not

In an ecosystem, all incoming energy will eventually be _____. (see book section: Concept 55.1: Physical laws govern energy flow and chemical cycling in ecosystems)

transferred from one trophic level to the next
transferred to the decomposers
dissipated into space as heat
used in photosynthesis
None of the listed responses is correct.

dissipated into space as heat

Based on the law of conservation of energy, ecosystem ecologists can make which of the following assertions? (see book section: Concept 55.1: Physical laws govern energy flow and chemical cycling in ecosystems)

The total amount of energy stored in organic molecules plus the amounts reflected and dissipated as heat must equal the total solar energy intercepted by the Earth.
Photosynthetic organisms can convert approximately 1% of the solar energy they receive into organic molecules.
Approximately 10% of energy is transferred from one trophic level to the next.
Elements are not lost on a global scale.
All of the listed responses are correct.

The total amount of energy stored in organic molecules plus the amounts reflected and dissipated as heat must equal the total solar energy intercepted by the Earth.

Which of the following is a primary producer? (see book section: Concept 55.1: Physical laws govern energy flow and chemical cycling in ecosystems)

detritivores
shrimp
poison ivy
lions
humans

poison ivy

Photosynthetic organisms are called _____. (see book section: Concept 55.1: Physical laws govern energy flow and chemical cycling in ecosystems)

autotrophs
heterotrophs
herbivores
carnivores
consumers

autotrophs

When you eat an apple, you are a _____. (see book section: Concept 55.1: Physical laws govern energy flow and chemical cycling in ecosystems)

primary consumer
carnivore
primary producer
secondary consumer
detritivore

primary consumer

The main decomposers in an ecosystem are _____. (see book section: Concept 55.1: Physical laws govern energy flow and chemical cycling in ecosystems)

plants and animals
prokaryotes and animals
fungi and prokaryotes
prokaryotes and plants
plants and fungi

fungi and prokaryotes

Most of the sunlight that reaches Earth _____. (see book section: Concept 55.2: Energy and other limiting factors control primary production in ecosystems)

is used by plants for photosynthesis
is not captured for use by living things
is continually recycled by ecosystems
is trapped by greenhouse gases
is used by algae for photosynthesis

is not captured for use by living things

The rate at which producers convert solar energy to the chemical energy of organic compounds, minus the energy used during respiration, is called _____. (see book section: Concept 55.2: Energy and other limiting factors control primary production in ecosystems)

biomass
standing crop
net ecosystem production
net primary production
gross primary production

net primary production

In a particular ecosystem, what value do you have if you subtract the total respiration of all organisms in that system from the amount of light energy converted to chemical energy by photosynthesizers in the ecosystem? (see book section: Concept 55.2: Energy and other limiting factors control primary production in ecosystems)

standing crop
net ecosystem production
gross primary production
net primary production
actual evapotranspiration

net ecosystem production

A study of metabolic rates in a terrestrial community showed that the energy released by respiration exceeded the energy captured in photosynthesis. Which of the following situations is most likely? (see book section: Concept 55.2: Energy and other limiting factors control primary production in ecosystems)

Community biomass is increasing.
Community biomass is decreasing.
The second law of thermodynamics (in a closed system, there is a general tendency toward disorder) is not in effect.
The first law of thermodynamics (energy is conserved) in not in effect.
None of the listed responses is correct.

Community biomass is decreasing.

What are the major factors that control primary production in terrestrial ecosystems? (see book section: Concept 55.2: Energy and other limiting factors control primary production in ecosystems)

light and nutrients
light and moisture
temperature and moisture
temperature and nutrients
temperature and light

temperature and moisture

How do iron levels affect phytoplankton populations in a marine ecosystem? (see book section: Concept 55.2: Energy and other limiting factors control primary production in ecosystems)

Without iron, eukaryotic phytoplankton populations fall because they cannot convert atmospheric N2 to nitrogenous minerals.
In the presence of too much iron, eukaryotic phytoplankton populations fall because they cannot convert atmospheric N2 to nitrogenous minerals.
Iron stimulates the growth of cyanobacteria, which convert atmospheric N2 to nitrogenous minerals, stimulating the growth of phytoplankton.
Iron halts the growth of cyanobacteria, which convert atmospheric N2 to nitrogenous minerals; therefore, phytoplankton populations are limited.
Nitrogen and phosphorus are the only known limiting nutrients in marine ecosystems.

Iron stimulates the growth of cyanobacteria, which convert atmospheric N2 to nitrogenous minerals, stimulating the growth of phytoplankton.

Eutrophication in lakes is frequently the direct result of _____. (see book section: Concept 55.2: Energy and other limiting factors control primary production in ecosystems)

a diminished supply of nitrates and phosphates
industrial poisons
nutrient enrichment such as nitrate and phosphate runoffs from land
an increase in primary consumers
None of the listed responses is correct.

nutrient enrichment such as nitrate and phosphate runoffs from land

The amount of chemical energy in a consumer's food that is converted to its own new biomass over a period of time is called _____. (see book section: Concept 55.3: Energy transfer between trophic levels is typically only 10% efficient)

primary production
secondary production
production efficiency
net ecosystem production
This question cannot be answered without knowing at which trophic level the organism feeds.

secondary production

In the transition from each trophic level of the food chain to the next trophic level, there is about a _____. (see book section: Concept 55.3: Energy transfer between trophic levels is typically only 10% efficient)

90% gain of energy
2% gain of energy
90% loss of energy
2% loss of energy
5% loss of energy

90% loss of energy

Which of the following best describes the base of a pyramid of net production? (see book section: Concept 55.3: Energy transfer between trophic levels is typically only 10% efficient)

Its size depends on the energy available from detritivores.
It contains the energy left after the producers have died.
It represents the energy available to secondary consumers.
It contains the energy captured by photosynthesis.
It receives energy from the primary, secondary, and tertiary consumers.

It contains the energy captured by photosynthesis.

In general, the biomass in an ecosystem will be greatest at the trophic level comprising _____. (see book section: Concept 55.3: Energy transfer between trophic levels is typically only 10% efficient)

producers
herbivores
primary consumers
carnivores
secondary consumers

producers

In ecosystems, organisms at the highest trophic levels usually contain less collective biomass than the organisms at lower trophic levels because _____. (see book section: Concept 55.3: Energy transfer between trophic levels is typically only 10% efficient)

organisms are inefficient at converting the energy they consume into biomass
biomass shrinks as it rises
top-level predators use so much energy to catch their food
producers (for example, plants) tend to be heavier than consumers (for example, birds)
most of the solar energy hitting Earth is reflected back into space

organisms are inefficient at converting the energy they consume into biomass

What is the main abiotic reservoir for elements involved in local biogeochemical cycles, such as calcium and phosphorus? (see book section: Concept 55.4: Biological and geochemical processes cycle nutrients and water in ecosystems)

oceans
rivers
soil
wind
the atmosphere

soil

Which of the following statements is correct? (see book section: Concept 55.4: Biological and geochemical processes cycle nutrients and water in ecosystems)

Over land, evaporation exceeds transpiration and precipitation.
Over land, evaporation and transpiration exceed precipitation.
Over oceans, transpiration exceeds precipitation.
Over oceans, evaporation exceeds precipitation.
Most of Earth's water can be found in living systems.

Over oceans, evaporation exceeds precipitation.

The global hydrologic cycle supports a net flow of atmospheric water vapor _____. (see book section: Concept 55.4: Biological and geochemical processes cycle nutrients and water in ecosystems)

from the oceans to land
from land to the oceans
from polar to tropical regions
from tropical to polar regions
from unforested to forested biomes

from the oceans to land

Local conditions such as heavy rainfall or the removal of plants may limit the amount of nitrogen, phosphorus, or calcium available to a particular ecosystem, but the amount of carbon available to the system is seldom a problem. Why? (see book section: Concept 55.4: Biological and geochemical processes cycle nutrients and water in ecosystems)

Organisms do not need very much carbon.
Plants can make their own carbon using water and sunlight.
Plants are much better at absorbing carbon from the soil.
Many nutrients come from the soil, but carbon comes from the air.
Symbiotic bacteria help plants capture carbon.

Many nutrients come from the soil, but carbon comes from the air.

Which of the following is a key part of the carbon cycle? (see book section: Concept 55.4: Biological and geochemical processes cycle nutrients and water in ecosystems)

return of CO2 to the atmosphere by burning fossil fuels
assimilation of atmospheric CO2 by plant photosynthesis
return of CO2 to the atmosphere by animal and plant respiration
breakdown by decomposers of carbon-containing dead plants and animals
All of the listed responses are correct.

All of the listed responses are correct.

By which process is carbon dioxide released from plants back to the atmosphere? (see book section: Concept 55.4: Biological and geochemical processes cycle nutrients and water in ecosystems)

photosynthesis
respiration
ammonification
phosphorylation
evaporation

respiration

Bacteria are especially important in making _____ available to plants. (see book section: Concept 55.4: Biological and geochemical processes cycle nutrients and water in ecosystems)

water
nitrogen
carbon
phosphorus
energy

nitrogen

The direct product of nitrogen fixation is _____. (see book section: Concept 55.4: Biological and geochemical processes cycle nutrients and water in ecosystems)

NH4+
NO2-
NO3-
NH3
N2

NH3

Which of the following is true of the nitrogen cycle? (see book section: Concept 55.4: Biological and geochemical processes cycle nutrients and water in ecosystems)

Bacteria are not involved in the process.
Plants can take in and use atmospheric nitrogen through their leaves.
Some animals can use inorganic forms of nitrogen such as ammonium.
When plants and animals die, the nitrogen within their bodies becomes unavailable.
Nitrite is converted to nitrate (NO3-) by nitrifying bacteria.

Nitrite is converted to nitrate (NO3-) by nitrifying bacteria.

The phosphorus cycle lacks a(n) _____ component. (see book section: Concept 55.4: Biological and geochemical processes cycle nutrients and water in ecosystems)

atmospheric
organic
mineral
aquatic
organic and gaseous

atmospheric

When researchers at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest cut down trees and measured subsequent mineral levels in the soil, they found that _____. (see book section: Concept 55.4: Biological and geochemical processes cycle nutrients and water in ecosystems)

the mineral levels were unaffected as long as the tree remains were not removed
primary production was not affected as long as Ca2+ was added to the soil
the forest was able to grow back before mineral levels changed significantly
the amount of nutrients leaving an intact forest ecosystem is controlled by the plants
None of the listed responses is correct.

the amount of nutrients leaving an intact forest ecosystem is controlled by the plants

_____ is the science of facilitating the return of a degraded ecosystem to a more natural condition. (see book section: Concept 55.5: Restoration ecologists help return degraded ecosystems to a more natural state)

Bioremediation
Biological restoration
Biological augmentation
Restoration ecology
Biophilia

Restoration ecology

The use of organisms to add essential materials to degraded systems defines _____. (see book section: Concept 55.5: Restoration ecologists help return degraded ecosystems to a more natural state)

biophilia
restoration ecology
bioremediation
biological augmentation
landscape management

biological augmentation

Under which of the following circumstances would interspecific competition be most obvious? (see book section: Concept 54.1: Community interactions are classified by whether they help, harm, or have no effect on the species involved)

when resources are most abundant
in the presence of a keystone species
when organisms have quite different ecological niches
among species whose trophic levels are different
when a nonnative organism is introduced to a community

when a nonnative organism is introduced to a community

The niche of an animal is _____. (see book section: Concept 54.1: Community interactions are classified by whether they help, harm, or have no effect on the species involved)

the number of individuals of the species the environment will support
the same as its habitat
the way the animal fits into its environment
its den or nest
its position in the food chain

the way the animal fits into its environment

When goats were introduced to an island off the California coast, the goats inhabited the same areas and ate the same plants as the native deer. The deer population dwindled and finally disappeared. This is an example of _____. (see book section: Concept 54.1: Community interactions are classified by whether they help, harm, or have no effect on the species involved)

commensalism
succession
a food chain
coevolution
competitive exclusion

competitive exclusion

Flounder is a type of fish that looks like the seafloor. This is an example of _____. (see book section: Concept 54.1: Community interactions are classified by whether they help, harm, or have no effect on the species involved)

Müllerian mimicry
warning coloration
character displacement
cryptic coloration
Batesian mimicry

cryptic coloration

The flower fly resembles a honeybee, but the flower fly has no stinger. This is an example of _____. (see book section: Concept 54.1: Community interactions are classified by whether they help, harm, or have no effect on the species involved)

Batesian mimicry
Müllerian mimicry
cryptic coloration
interspecific competition
None of the listed responses is correct.

Batesian mimicry

The poison-arrow frogs Dendrobates of tropical America are all brightly colored and have very similar patterns. Although each species is distasteful to predators and all possess toxic skin secretions, some of the species live quite separate from the others. The adaptive relationship among these species is best termed _____. (see book section: Concept 54.1: Community interactions are classified by whether they help, harm, or have no effect on the species involved)

cryptic coloration
parasitism
commensalism
Batesian mimicry
Müllerian mimicry

Müllerian mimicry

A leech that attaches itself to a swimmer is an example of _____. (see book section: Concept 54.1: Community interactions are classified by whether they help, harm, or have no effect on the species involved)

prey
a parasitoid
an endoparasite
an ectoparasite
a pathogen

an ectoparasite

Certain species of acacia trees in Central and South America have hollow thorns that house stinging ants, which attack anything that touches the tree. The ants feed on nutrients produced by the acacias. This is an example of _____. (see book section: Concept 54.1: Community interactions are classified by whether they help, harm, or have no effect on the species involved)

mutualism
parasitism
predation
commensalism
facilitation

mutualism

Which example below correctly lists members of a desert ecosystem from the producer level to the top consumer level? (see book section: Concept 54.2: Diversity and trophic structure characterize biological communities)

detritivores, brittlebush, collared lizard, red-tailed hawk
red-tailed hawk, collared lizard, pallid-winged grasshopper, brittlebush
pallid-winged grasshopper, collared lizard, red-tailed hawk, detritivores
brittlebush, detritivores, pallid-winged grasshopper, collared lizard, red-tailed hawk
None of the listed responses is correct.

None of the listed responses is correct.

A field contains 950 kg of plant material. How many kilograms of tertiary consumers could be supported? (see book section: Concept 54.2: Diversity and trophic structure characterize biological communities)

9,500
950
95
9.5
0.95

0.95

What is the key difference between a dominant species and a keystone species? (see book section: Concept 54.2: Diversity and trophic structure characterize biological communities)

There is no difference. The two terms are synonymous.
Dominant species alter the structure or dynamics of the environment; keystone species are the most abundant.
Dominant species are the most abundant; keystone species exert control through important roles or niches.
The removal of a dominant species from a community has more impact than removing a keystone species.
Keystone species are more successful at evading their predators and the impacts of disease.

Dominant species are the most abundant; keystone species exert control through important roles or niches.

In the North Pacific, sea otters are keystone predators. A reduction in their numbers has resulted in what changes in the marine community? (see book section: Concept 54.2: Diversity and trophic structure characterize biological communities)

competitive exclusion, which reduced species richness
mutualism among prey species, which maintained species diversity
orcas beginning to prey on sea urchins
decreased community diversity
resource partitioning, allowing otherwise competing species to coexist

decreased community diversity

A species of malaria-carrying mosquito lives in a forest in which two species of monkeys, A and B, coexist. Species A is immune to malaria, but species B is not. The malaria-carrying mosquito is the chief food for a particular kind of bird in the forest. If all these birds were suddenly eliminated by hunters, which of the following would be an immediately observable consequence? (see book section: Concept 54.2: Diversity and trophic structure characterize biological communities)

increased mortality (death rate) in monkey species A
increased mortality in monkey species B
increased mortality in the malaria-carrying mosquitoes
emergence of malaria-resistant strains in monkey species B
emergence of malaria-sensitive strains in monkey species A

increased mortality in monkey species B

A lake community with four trophic levels suddenly suffers from algal blooms. Using the strategy of biomanipulation, an ecologist may propose _____. (see book section: Concept 54.2: Diversity and trophic structure characterize biological communities)

removing zooplankton
adding mineral nutrients to the water
adding fish that eat zooplankton
removing fish that eat zooplankton
removing the fourth trophic level in the lake

removing fish that eat zooplankton

The current view of biological communities is _____. (see book section: Concept 54.3: Disturbance influences species diversity and composition)

that they eventually reach a state of equilibrium
that disturbance and nonequilibrium are the norm
that they maintain a relatively constant composition of species
that the effect of disturbances is usually negative
None of the listed responses is correct.

that disturbance and nonequilibrium are the norm

Succession of communities occurs because _____. (see book section: Concept 54.3: Disturbance influences species diversity and composition)

each existing community changes the environment
climatic changes lead to reduced water availability
most populations have a limited life span and die, making room for others
resources in an area are limited
None of the listed responses is correct.

each existing community changes the environment

Which statement below correctly describes conditions on a glacier moraine during the reign of pioneer species? (see book section: Concept 54.3: Disturbance influences species diversity and composition)

Vegetation consists of sphagnum bogs on poorly drained flat areas.
Decomposition of acidic spruce needles reduces the pH of the soil.
Low nitrogen content causes many plants to have yellow leaves.
Alder forms dense thickets up to 9 -meters tall.
Bare soil is acidic due to the carbonate compounds in the parent rocks.

Low nitrogen content causes many plants to have yellow leaves.

_____ views a community as the chance assemblage of organisms with similar abiotic needs. (see book section: Concept 54.3: Disturbance influences species diversity and composition)

The niche concept
H. A. Gleason
A.G. Tansley
Commensalism
F. E. Clements

H. A. Gleason

What are two key factors in species richness equatorial-polar gradients? (see book section: Concept 54.4: Biogeographic factors affect community diversity)

length of seasons and water availability
evolutionary history and climate
altitude and evolutionary history
evapotranspiration and temperature
solar radiation and water availability

evolutionary history and climate

When equilibrium is reached on an island, _____. (see book section: Concept 54.4: Biogeographic factors affect community diversity)

the number of organisms does not change
ecological disturbance is minimized
the rate of species immigration will equal the rate of species extinction
the food web will be highly stable
extinction will cease

the rate of species immigration will equal the rate of species extinction

What happens to the number of species in a community as the area of that community increases? (see book section: Concept 54.4: Biogeographic factors affect community diversity)

the number of species does not change
the number of species drops
the number of species increases
the area of the community is not involved in determining the number of species present
None of the listed responses is correct.

the number of species increases

The potential evapotranspiration is determined by _____. (see book section: Concept 54.4: Biogeographic factors affect community diversity)

wind
soil type
slope
solar radiation
season

solar radiation

Which of the following is the definition of a pathogen? (see book section: Concept 54.5: Pathogens alter community structure locally and globally)

a group of populations living in close enough proximity to interact regularly
a disease-causing microorganism
a species that kills and eats another species
a species that is killed and eaten by another
a type of interspecific interaction that benefits both species

a disease-causing microorganism

What is a zoonotic pathogen? (see book section: Concept 54.5: Pathogens alter community structure locally and globally)

a pathogen that infects many species
a pathogen that can be controlled with antibiotics
a pathogen that is transferred from another species to humans
a pathogen that only infects one species
an easily treatable pathogen

a pathogen that is transferred from another species to humans

To calculate the human population density of your community, you would need to know the number of people living there and _____. (see book section: Concept 53.1: Dynamic biological processes influence population density, dispersion, and demographics)

the size of the area in which they live
the birth rate of the population
whether population growth is logistic or exponential
the dispersion pattern of the population
the carrying capacity

the size of the area in which they live

Which choice below is an example of an expression of population density? (see book section: Concept 53.1: Dynamic biological processes influence population density, dispersion, and demographics)

255 dogfish sharks
100 sea stars, barnacles, and mussels per 25 m2 of a tide pool
the number of Paramecium caudatum in a 250-mL solution in a glass flask
the total number of sturgeon per cubic meter in San Francisco Bay and in Tomales Bay
the total dry mass of trout in a lake

the number of Paramecium caudatum in a 250-mL solution in a glass flask

When needed resources are unevenly distributed, organisms often show a(n) _____ dispersion pattern. (see book section: Concept 53.1: Dynamic biological processes influence population density, dispersion, and demographics)

density-dependent
clumped
exponential
random
uniform

clumped

Organisms that live in a homogenous abiotic environment and cooperate to avoid being eaten would likely show a(n) _____ pattern of dispersion. (see book section: Concept 53.1: Dynamic biological processes influence population density, dispersion, and demographics)

continuous
uniform
even
random
clumped

clumped

Herring gulls fiercely defend the areas around their nests in cliff-top breeding colonies. Within the colony they would show a _____ dispersion pattern. (see book section: Concept 53.1: Dynamic biological processes influence population density, dispersion, and demographics)

uniform
random
dense
density-independent
clumped

uniform

Pine trees in a forest tend to shade and kill pine seedlings that sprout nearby. This causes the pine trees to _____. (see book section: Concept 53.1: Dynamic biological processes influence population density, dispersion, and demographics)

increase exponentially
grow in a clumped pattern
grow in a uniform pattern
exceed their carrying capacity
grow in a random pattern

grow in a uniform pattern

A demographer may study _____. (see book section: Concept 53.1: Dynamic biological processes influence population density, dispersion, and demographics)

birth rates in a small town in Iowa
emigration rates in a forest that has been cleared partially for farming
offspring mortality rates in humpback whales
immigration rates in Melbourne, Australia
All of the listed responses are correct.

All of the listed responses are correct.

Life tables typically follow the fate of a cohort, a _____. (see book section: Concept 53.1: Dynamic biological processes influence population density, dispersion, and demographics)

group of individuals who live in the same community
group of individuals who migrated to the same area at the same time
group of individuals who died from the same disease
group of individuals who reproduced at the same age
group of individuals who are the same age

group of individuals who are the same age

An oak tree produces thousands of acorns, but very few grow into mature oak trees. The oak tree exhibits a _____ survivorship curve. (see book section: Concept 53.1: Dynamic biological processes influence population density, dispersion, and demographics)

Type I
Type II
Type III
Type I or II
Type I or III

Type III

Chimpanzees have a relatively low birth rate. They care for their young, and most chimps live a long life. The chimp survivorship curve would look like _____. (see book section: Concept 53.1: Dynamic biological processes influence population density, dispersion, and demographics)

a line that slopes gradually upward
a relatively flat line that drops steeply at the end
a line that drops steeply at first, then flattens out
a line that slopes gradually downward
a horizontal line

a relatively flat line that drops steeply at the end

Which of the following describes the distribution of survivorship or mortality for a population that has a Type II survivorship curve? (see book section: Concept 53.1: Dynamic biological processes influence population density, dispersion, and demographics)

Little death occurs until late in life.
Most of the mortality occurs among younger individuals.
Survivorship is greatest in younger individuals.
Survivorship is greatest in individuals that are intermediate in age.
The chance of death is roughly constant over all ages.

The chance of death is roughly constant over all ages.

Kingfish, Louisiana, had a population of 1,100 individuals. They had a birth rate of 12/100, a death rate of 8/100, and an emigration (individuals leaving the population) rate of 2/100. How many people were added to Kingfish's population in one year? (see book section: Concept 53.2: The exponential model describes population growth in an idealized, unlimited environment)

2
6
20
22
1,122

22

Using the data in question 12 above, what was the per capita rate of increase, including emigration, for this year in Kingfish? (see book section: Concept 53.2: The exponential model describes population growth in an idealized, unlimited environment)

4
22
2
0.02
0.22

0.02

When the per capita birth rate equals the per capita death rate, _____. (see book section: Concept 53.2: The exponential model describes population growth in an idealized, unlimited environment)

a population grows rapidly
the size of a population remains constant
density-dependent limiting factors do not affect the population
a population is in danger of extinction
a population goes through up and down cycles

the size of a population remains constant

A population will always grow exponentially _____. (see book section: Concept 53.2: The exponential model describes population growth in an idealized, unlimited environment)

if it is limited only by density-dependent factors
until it reaches carrying capacity
if there are no limiting factors
if it is a population with an equilibrium life history
None of the listed responses is correct.

if there are no limiting factors

Which of the following populations probably exhibits exponential growth? (see book section: Concept 53.2: The exponential model describes population growth in an idealized, unlimited environment)

a protozoan population grown in a sealed glass culture flask
a fruit fly population that recently arrived on a lush mid-oceanic island previously inhabited only by plants
a redwood tree population in a forest
a population of deer in an area with few palatable food plants
a population of deer in an area with many hungry wolves

a fruit fly population that recently arrived on a lush mid-oceanic island previously inhabited only by plants

No population can grow indefinitely. The ultimate size of any population is limited by _____. (see book section: Concept 53.3: The logistic model describes how a population grows more slowly as it nears its carrying capacity)

its r
its birth rate
its death rate
the carrying capacity of its environment
reproductive isolation

the carrying capacity of its environment

A newly mated queen ant founds a nest in an unoccupied patch of suitable habitat. Assuming that no disasters strike the nest, which of the following types of equations is likely to best describe the population growth of the new colony? (see book section: Concept 53.3: The logistic model describes how a population grows more slowly as it nears its carrying capacity)

linear
circular
logistic
exponential
None of the listed responses is correct.

logistic

In an equilibrium population (at its carrying capacity), thousands of eggs and hundreds of tadpoles are produced by a single pair of frogs. On average, about how many offspring per pair will live to reproduce? (see book section: Concept 53.3: The logistic model describes how a population grows more slowly as it nears its carrying capacity)

0
2
10 to 20
100
more than 100

2

A wildlife biologist is trying to predict what will happen to a bear population if bear hunting is banned. He had the equations all worked out but then realized that he had grossly underestimated the amount of food available to the bears. To make his prediction more accurate he should _____ the value of _____ in his equation. (Consider food to be a factor that limits the size of the bear population.) (see book section: Concept 53.3: The logistic model describes how a population grows more slowly as it nears its carrying capacity)

decrease ... N
increase ... N
decrease ... K
increase ... K
decrease ... r

increase ... K

Assuming that r has a positive value, in the formula dN/dt = rmaxN(K - N)/K, the factor rN tends to cause the population to _____. (see book section: Concept 53.3: The logistic model describes how a population grows more slowly as it nears its carrying capacity)

grow increasingly rapidly
remain stable at the carrying capacity
decrease in size
grow at a slower rate than the (K - N/K) factor
None of the listed responses is correct.

grow increasingly rapidly

A population that grows rapidly at first and then levels off at carrying capacity can be modeled _____. (see book section: Concept 53.3: The logistic model describes how a population grows more slowly as it nears its carrying capacity)

by a logistic equation
as dN/dt = b - d
as an opportunistic species
as dN/dt = rN
as being relatively unaffected by limiting factors

by a logistic equation

A population that is growing logistically _____. (see book section: Concept 53.3: The logistic model describes how a population grows more slowly as it nears its carrying capacity)

grows fastest when density is lowest
has a high r
grows fastest at an intermediate population density
grows fastest as it approaches carrying capacity
is always slowed by density-independent factors

grows fastest at an intermediate population density

The logistic growth model differs from the exponential growth model in that it _____. (see book section: Concept 53.3: The logistic model describes how a population grows more slowly as it nears its carrying capacity)

expresses the effects of population-limiting factors on exponential growth
is J-shaped and the exponential growth model is S-shaped
never shows the effects of population-limiting factors
implies that population size stabilizes at K when the birth rate is zero
implies that a population's growth rate will be highest when the population is small

expresses the effects of population-limiting factors on exponential growth

Which sentence below summarizes the Allee effect? (see book section: Concept 53.3: The logistic model describes how a population grows more slowly as it nears its carrying capacity)

New individuals are added to the population most rapidly at intermediate population size.
Individuals have a more difficult time surviving or reproducing if the population size is too small.
Populations adjust instantaneously and approach carrying capacity smoothly.
Different populations of the same species may show a balance of K-selected and r-selected traits.
None of the listed responses is correct.

Individuals have a more difficult time surviving or reproducing if the population size is too small.

A variety of opossum that lives on an island with no predators lives much longer than its relatives on the mainland, even when both are kept safely in a zoo. The island variant's genes have been selected for slow aging, whereas the mainland variant's genes have been selected for quick reproduction. The island opossum exhibits _____ selection, and the mainland opossum exhibits _____ selection. (see book section: Concept 53.4: Life history traits are products of natural selection)

r ... K
K ... r
nutrient ... territory
iteroparity ... semelparity
clumped ... uniform

K ... r

What are three basic issues that life histories entail? (see book section: Concept 53.4: Life history traits are products of natural selection)

when reproduction begins, how often the organism breeds, and how many offspring from each reproductive episode survive to also reproduce
whether or not reproduction is a conscious decision, how often the organism breeds, and how many offspring are produced during each reproductive episode
when reproduction begins, level of parental care, and how many offspring are produced during each reproductive episode
when reproduction begins, how often the organism breeds, and how many offspring are produced during each reproductive episode
whether or not reproduction is a conscious decision, level of parental care, and how many offspring are produced during each reproductive episode

when reproduction begins, how often the organism breeds, and how many offspring are produced during each reproductive episode

A dog gives birth to three puppies one year. Three years later, she gives birth to six puppies. Which type of life history pattern is characteristic of this organism? (see book section: Concept 53.4: Life history traits are products of natural selection)

semelparity
exponential population growth
big-bang reproduction
iteroparity
r-selection

iteroparity

Although there are organisms whose life histories fall somewhere between iteroparity and semelparity, life history always represents a trade-off. Why is this? (see book section: Concept 53.4: Life history traits are products of natural selection)

Parents always try to leave adequate resources for their offspring, so the parents may suffer.
The energy cost of reproduction is high, so there are not enough resources to reproduce often, produce many offspring, and take care of them.
In unpredictable environments iteroparity is favored because it may require many attempts to successfully reproduce.
Where resource competition is intense, semelparity is favored because, of the many offspring produced, only a few will survive.
All of the listed responses are correct.

The energy cost of reproduction is high, so there are not enough resources to reproduce often, produce many offspring, and take care of them.

Which of the following would most likely be an example of a density-independent factor limiting population growth? (see book section: Concept 53.5: Many factors that regulate population growth are density dependent)

food availability
diseases
accumulation of toxic wastes
parasites
daily temperature extremes

daily temperature extremes

A certain species of seal breeds and rears its young on rocky beaches. Competition for breeding sites is fierce, and males that do not secure a site will not reproduce. This behavior is an example of which mechanism of density-dependent population regulation? (see book section: Concept 53.5: Many factors that regulate population growth are density dependent)

competition for resources
toxic wastes
intrinsic factors
predation
territoriality

territoriality

A particular environmental change causes the deaths of 25 individuals in a herd of 100 wild horses, and it kills 50 individuals in a herd of 200 horses. In this case, the growth of a wild horse population is most likely limited by _____. (Assume that the two herds are found in territories of equal size.) (see book section: Concept 53.5: Many factors that regulate population growth are density dependent)

a density-dependent factor
food supply
a predator
a density-independent factor
the presence of another species that uses the same food resource

a density-independent factor

Which of the following is most likely a density-dependent growth regulator of animal populations? (see book section: Concept 53.5: Many factors that regulate population growth are density dependent)

a decrease in clutch size
hurricanes
fires
droughts
All of the listed responses are correct.

a decrease in clutch size

The cyclic growth exhibited by populations of snowshoe hares in the North American taiga most likely results from _____. (see book section: Concept 53.5: Many factors that regulate population growth are density dependent)

predation by lynx
fluctuations in the hare's food resources
predation by lynx and fluctuations in the hare's food resources
hunting by humans
weather changes

predation by lynx and fluctuations in the hare's food resources

If you wanted to determine what percentage of the population of Thailand is less than 10 years old, you could look at _____. (see book section: Concept 53.6: The human population is no longer growing exponentially but is still increasing rapidly)

a logistic curve for the population
the population's age structure
a life table for the population
a plot of population density
the population's survivorship curve

the population's age structure

An ecologist would suspect a population to be growing rapidly if it _____. (see book section: Concept 53.6: The human population is no longer growing exponentially but is still increasing rapidly)

contains many more prereproductive than reproductive individuals
is near its carrying capacity
is limited only by density-dependent factors
shows a clumped pattern of dispersion
is far below its carrying capacity

contains many more prereproductive than reproductive individuals

What absolutely essential resource is likely to limit the carrying capacity of Earth for humans? (see book section: Concept 53.6: The human population is no longer growing exponentially but is still increasing rapidly)

oil
raw materials such as metals
water
space
oxygen

water

To calculate the _____ of a nation, researchers summarize arable land, pasture, fossil energy land, and several other factors appropriated by each nation to produce all of the resources it consumes and to absorb all the waste it generates. (see book section: Concept 53.6: The human population is no longer growing exponentially but is still increasing rapidly)

ecological footprint
carrying capacity
ecological capacity
principles of energy flow
life history

ecological footprint

An ecologist might conduct research to answer which of the following questions? (see book section: Overview: Discovering Ecology)

How does the uneven heating of Earth's surface cause the movement of air and water masses?
How do genes specify protein construction?
How are different species of fish related (in an evolutionary sense) to each other?
How does caffeine affect the transmission of nerve impulses in humans?
How do tapeworms adapt to life in the human intestine?

How do tapeworms adapt to life in the human intestine?

Temperature, precipitation, sunlight, and wind are the major components of _____ (see book section: Concept 52.4: Interactions between organisms and the environment limit the distribution of species)

biotic factors
biomes
dispersal
climate
ecosystems

climate

Bodies of water tend to moderate climate because _____. (see book section: Concept 52.1: Earth's climate varies by latitude and season and is changing rapidly)

the hydrogen bonding in water gives it a high specific heat
water has a high heat of vaporization
the hydrogen bonding in water causes it to be cohesive
water is always cooler than the nearby landmasses
All of the listed responses are correct.

the hydrogen bonding in water gives it a high specific heat

Why are many of the world's deserts located at latitudes between 30°N and 30°S? (see book section: Concept 52.1: Earth's climate varies by latitude and season and is changing rapidly)

Earth is tilted on its axis.
The greatest amount of solar energy per unit area is absorbed by Earth between 30°N latitude and 30°S latitude.
Dry air, originating at the equator, descends toward Earth's surface between 30°N latitude and 30°S latitude.
Warm air rises between 30°N latitude and 30°S latitude and spreads toward the poles and the equator.
Earth is a rotating sphere.

Dry air, originating at the equator, descends toward Earth's surface between 30°N latitude and 30°S latitude.

When people speak of the "rain shadow" of the California Coast Range, they are referring to _____. (see book section: Concept 52.1: Earth's climate varies by latitude and season and is changing rapidly)

the shadow cast by the mist and clouds that hover above the crest of the range
the forested condition on the eastern flank of the range compared with the western flank
the scarcity of rain on the eastern flank and adjacent lowlands compared with the western flank
the dark-colored chaparral vegetation that grows on the eastern flank
None of the listed responses is correct.

the scarcity of rain on the eastern flank and adjacent lowlands compared with the western flank

Wet and dry seasons in tropical deciduous forests are ultimately caused by _____. (see book section: Concept 52.1: Earth's climate varies by latitude and season and is changing rapidly)

changes in day length
microclimates
proximity to bodies of water
upwelling of cold ocean water
the tilt of the Earth

the tilt of the Earth

The warming of the Earth is a(n) _____ effect. People are worried that it will have a(n) _____ effect, perhaps causing the extinction of a number of species. (see book section: Concept 52.1: Earth's climate varies by latitude and season and is changing rapidly)

ecological ... evolutionary
abiotic ... dispersal
evolutionary ... biotic
ecological ... dispersal
biotic ... abiotic

ecological ... evolutionary

Assume that the average temperature in a particular city in the year 1900 was 10.3°C. Based on known warming trends in global climate, what do you expect the average temperature to be in that city in the year 2000? (see book section: Concept 52.1: Earth's climate varies by latitude and season and is changing rapidly)

10.3°C
11.3°C
11.7°C
18.3°C
11.1°C

11.1°C

Which of the following statements about biomes is correct? (see book section: Concept 52.2: The structure and distribution of terrestrial biomes are controlled by climate and disturbance)

Each biome type occurs on every continent.
The major factors affecting the distribution of biomes are temperature and precipitation.
Most biomes are characterized by unique groups of particular species of plants and animals.
Most biomes are unaffected by human activity.
Each continent is home to a biome not found elsewhere on Earth.

The major factors affecting the distribution of biomes are temperature and precipitation.

A climograph shows the mean temperature and precipitation values that support different biomes. What information is missing that would help predict what biome should be found in a particular range? (see book section: Concept 52.2: The structure and distribution of terrestrial biomes are controlled by climate and disturbance)

latitude and longitude
day length
the pattern of climatic variation, including seasonal differences
microclimate
dominant plant species

the pattern of climatic variation, including seasonal differences

Different species that inhabit the same type of biome, but occur in widely separated geographic regions, often appear similar due to _____. (see book section: Concept 52.2: The structure and distribution of terrestrial biomes are controlled by climate and disturbance)

their close evolutionary relationships
convergent evolution
the occurrence of the same sets of species within a biome, wherever it is found
recent common ancestry
chance

convergent evolution

What helps produce the patchiness found in most biomes? (see book section: Concept 52.2: The structure and distribution of terrestrial biomes are controlled by climate and disturbance)

climate change
layered structure
convergent evolution
ecotones
disturbance

disturbance

Permafrost is characteristic of the _____. (see book section: Concept 52.2: The structure and distribution of terrestrial biomes are controlled by climate and disturbance)

tundra
temperate forest
taiga
desert
tropical forest

tundra

Which biome is the largest terrestrial biome on Earth? (see book section: Concept 52.2: The structure and distribution of terrestrial biomes are controlled by climate and disturbance)

temperate broadleaf forest
coniferous forest
savanna
desert
tropical forest

coniferous forest

Which of the following choices correctly pairs a terrestrial biome with some of its characteristics? (see book section: Concept 52.2: The structure and distribution of terrestrial biomes are controlled by climate and disturbance)

temperate broadleaf forest ... cold winters, wet and dry seasons
grassland ... moderate winter temperatures, dry summers
taiga ... very cold winters, short growing season
savanna ... long, cold winters, abundant precipitation throughout the year
tundra ... very cold winters, low summer productivity

taiga ... very cold winters, short growing season

Which of the following biomes is dominated by gymnosperm or conifer trees (pines, firs, spruces)? (see book section: Concept 52.2: The structure and distribution of terrestrial biomes are controlled by climate and disturbance)

taiga
tundra
desert
broadleaf forest
tropical rain forest

taiga

Of these biomes, vertical stratification (layers of plants) is most pronounced in the _____. (see book section: Concept 52.2: The structure and distribution of terrestrial biomes are controlled by climate and disturbance)

grassland
tundra
desert
tropical rain forest
savanna

tropical rain forest

What could a climograph be used for? (see book section: Concept 52.2: The structure and distribution of terrestrial biomes are controlled by climate and disturbance)

to compare the temperature and altitude of different biomes
to compare the latitude and precipitation of different biomes
to compare the temperature and precipitation of different biomes
to compare geographic range and diversity of organisms in different biomes
to compare average wind speeds and precipitation of different biomes

to compare the temperature and precipitation of different biomes

Which statement is true about the tundra? (see book section: Concept 52.2: The structure and distribution of terrestrial biomes are controlled by climate and disturbance)

Tundra only exists in the Arctic.
Permafrost prevents much water from infiltrating the soil.
Migratory birds leave the tundra during the summer to find warmer places to nest.
Due to rich mineral content, agriculturists have recently focused their attention on the tundra.
None of the listed responses is correct.

Permafrost prevents much water from infiltrating the soil.

Which choice below describes a feature of grassland that explains why its remnants are concentrated in arid regions of North America and central Asia? (see book section: Concept 52.2: The structure and distribution of terrestrial biomes are controlled by climate and disturbance)

Grassland is often consumed by fire.
The soil is fertile and most grassland has been converted to farmland.
Large grazers, such as bison and wild horses, have depleted grassland.
Woody shrubs and trees have taken over in areas that receive more precipitation.
Grassland has been found to be a good source of minerals and oil.

The soil is fertile and most grassland has been converted to farmland.

Which of the following pairs of biomes is characterized by relatively simple food webs (low biological diversity)? (see book section: Concept 52.2: The structure and distribution of terrestrial biomes are controlled by climate and disturbance)

tundra and grassland
tundra and desert
desert and grassland
desert and broadleaf forest
taiga and savanna

tundra and desert

In which of the following biomes would you expect decomposers to work most rapidly and efficiently? (see book section: Concept 52.2: The structure and distribution of terrestrial biomes are controlled by climate and disturbance)

tundra
savanna
desert
taiga
tropical rain forest

tropical rain forest

Communities that exist in the aphotic zone ultimately depend on food manufactured by chemoautotrophic bacteria or _____. (see book section: Concept 52.3: Aquatic biomes are diverse and dynamic systems that cover most of Earth)

algae and cyanobacteria that also live in the aphotic zone
algae and cyanobacteria that live in the photic zone
decomposers
scavengers
minerals found on the ocean bottom

algae and cyanobacteria that live in the photic zone

After nutrient enrichment from sewage contamination, a lake often becomes inhospitable to fish. Why? (see book section: Concept 52.3: Aquatic biomes are diverse and dynamic systems that cover most of Earth)

Nutrient input to a lake causes the explosive growth of algal and cyanobacterial populations. This reduces the penetration of light into the lake, the water temperature falls, and eventually the fish population dies.
Nutrient input to a lake poisons the fish.
Nutrient input to a lake causes the explosive growth of algal and cyanobacterial populations. Decomposition of dead algae and cyanobacteria by bacteria results in the depletion of oxygen in the water, which leads to the death of fish.
Nutrient input to a lake poisons the organisms that fish eat.
Nutrient input causes the death of algae and cyanobacteria and, thus, the ultimate sources of organic compounds in a lake ecosystem. Eventually, this reduces the availability of food for fish within the lake, leading to their death.

Nutrient input to a lake causes the explosive growth of algal and cyanobacterial populations. Decomposition of dead algae and cyanobacteria by bacteria results in the depletion of oxygen in the water, which leads to the death of fish.

Plankton consists of _____. (see book section: Concept 52.3: Aquatic biomes are diverse and dynamic systems that cover most of Earth)

algae, cyanobacteria, and animals that drift near the surfaces of oceans only
photosynthetic organisms that drift near the surfaces of aquatic biomes
algae, cyanobacteria, and animals that belong to the benthic communities of oceans, lakes, ponds, rivers, and streams
algae, cyanobacteria, and animals that drift near the surfaces of oceans, lakes, ponds, rivers, and streams
algae, cyanobacteria, and animals that occupy the aphotic zones of oceans, lakes, and ponds

algae, cyanobacteria, and animals that drift near the surfaces of oceans, lakes, ponds, rivers, and streams

Which of the following is characteristic of oligotrophic lakes? (see book section: Concept 52.3: Aquatic biomes are diverse and dynamic systems that cover most of Earth)

seasonal O2 depletion
summer turnover
frequent algal blooms
few littoral plants and a low density of phytoplankton
animals that are tolerant of low-oxygen conditions

few littoral plants and a low density of phytoplankton

Rooted plants are found only in the _____ zone of a lake. (see book section: Concept 52.3: Aquatic biomes are diverse and dynamic systems that cover most of Earth)

pelagic
thermocline
limnetic
littoral
None of the listed responses is correct.

littoral

Fringe wetlands develop _____. (see book section: Concept 52.3: Aquatic biomes are diverse and dynamic systems that cover most of Earth)

along shallow and periodically flooded banks of rivers and streams
along the coasts of lakes where water flows back and forth because of falling and rising lake levels
along the coasts of seas where water flows back and forth because of tidal action
both the second and third listed responses
All of the listed responses are correct.

both the second and third listed responses

Below the photic zone of the ocean, _____. (see book section: Concept 52.3: Aquatic biomes are diverse and dynamic systems that cover most of Earth)

phytoplankton outnumber zooplankton
plants are rooted in the sandy bottom
food chains are detritus-based
primary producers capture the sun's energy, which is then passed up the energy pyramid
all the organisms are either floating or free-swimming

food chains are detritus-based

What is the importance of turnover in temperate lakes? (see book section: Concept 52.3: Aquatic biomes are diverse and dynamic systems that cover most of Earth)

It brings oxygen-rich water to the bottom, and nutrient-rich water to the surface.
It helps to set up a thermocline in the lake.
It brings benthic organisms to the surface, where they have access to more light and oxygen.
It occurs constantly during the summer, giving the lakes a murky appearance.
It changes the relative positions of the photic and aphotic zones.

It brings oxygen-rich water to the bottom, and nutrient-rich water to the surface.

In a rather infamous case of species transplantation, starlings were introduced into North America from Europe in 1890 by an eccentric Shakespeare fan. Though the actual range of starlings was originally in the eastern hemisphere, it is clear that North America was part of its _____ range. (see book section: Concept 52.4: Interactions between organisms and the environment limit the distribution of species)

biotic
potential
biogeographical
natural
ecological

potential

An immature frog (a tadpole) lives in a pond or lake. However, the adult frog possesses special adaptations that permit it to survive in a terrestrial environment. These special adaptations _____. (see book section: Concept 52.4: Interactions between organisms and the environment limit the distribution of species)

help prevent the adult frog's body from drying out
maximize body temperature
permit the adult frog to maintain its internal water balance given the solute concentration of its hypotonic surroundings
maximize the rate of water loss from its body
maximize the interception of solar energy

help prevent the adult frog's body from drying out

Cattle egrets, originally only found in Africa and southwestern Europe, can now be found in North America, due to which of the following? (see book section: Concept 52.4: Interactions between organisms and the environment limit the distribution of species)

biogeography
adaptive radiation
dispersal
habitat selection
convergent evolution

dispersal

Pheasants do not feed their chicks. Immediately after hatching, a pheasant chick starts pecking at seeds and insects on the ground. How might a behavioral ecologist explain the ultimate cause of this behavior? (see book section: Concept 51.1: Discrete sensory inputs can stimulate both simple and complex behaviors)

Pecking is a fixed action pattern (FAP).
Pheasants learned to peck, and their offspring inherited this behavior.
Pheasants that pecked survived and reproduced best.
Pecking is the result of imprinting during a critical period.
None of the listed responses is correct.

Pheasants that pecked survived and reproduced best.

Ants carry dead ants out of an anthill and dump them on a "trash" pile. If a chemical from a dead ant is applied to a live ant, other ants will carry it, kicking and struggling, from the anthill, until the substance wears off. Which of the following explains this behavior? (see book section: Concept 51.1: Discrete sensory inputs can stimulate both simple and complex behaviors)

The chemical is a sign stimulus for a fixed action pattern.
The ants have become imprinted on the chemical.
The ants are following a stimulus-response chain.
The ants can only learn by operant conditioning.
The ants are responding to a circadian clock.

The chemical is a sign stimulus for a fixed action pattern.

Which of the following is a fixed action pattern? (see book section: Concept 51.1: Discrete sensory inputs can stimulate both simple and complex behaviors)

A stickleback fish attacks a wood block with a red bottom.
A hamster becomes active at the same time each evening.
A wolf tracks its prey.
A robin eats a distasteful bug, spits it out, and never eats a bug that looks like that again.
A blackback gull returns to the same island breeding grounds each year.

A stickleback fish attacks a wood block with a red bottom.

Which of the following pairings of causation with Tinbergen's questions is accurate? (see book section: Concept 51.1: Discrete sensory inputs can stimulate both simple and complex behaviors)

proximate—"How does the behavior aid survival and reproduction?"
ultimate—"How does the animal's experience during growth and development influence the response?"
proximate—"What is the behavior's evolutionary history?"
ultimate—"What stimulus elicits the behavior, and what physiological mechanisms mediate the response?"
None of the listed responses is correct.

None of the listed responses is correct.

Watching squirrels in the park, you start to wonder why they act so oddly. One squirrel bit the tail of another. Which of the following is a question about the proximate cause of this behavior? (see book section: Concept 51.1: Discrete sensory inputs can stimulate both simple and complex behaviors)

Does the presence of a tail close by cause a squirrel to bite?
Does biting help keep other squirrels from stealing food?
Was the squirrel defending a mate from an intruder?
Is this biting behavior a form of courtship?
None of the listed responses is correct.

Does the presence of a tail close by cause a squirrel to bite?

Which of the following is an example of a circannual rhythm? (see book section: Concept 51.1: Discrete sensory inputs can stimulate both simple and complex behaviors)

Every spring robins gather in the park to build nests and reproduce.
Mosquitoes are most active at dawn and dusk.
Just as the sun sets, bats leave the cave in large swarms.
Fiddler crabs exhibit courtship behavior based on the phase of the moon.
In the heat of the day, most of the mammals at the zoo rest in the shade.

Every spring robins gather in the park to build nests and reproduce.

What signals might be best employed by a nocturnal forest animal seeking to identify its territory? (see book section: Concept 51.1: Discrete sensory inputs can stimulate both simple and complex behaviors)

visual and olfactory
auditory and olfactory
tactile and olfactory
visual and auditory
tactile and auditory

auditory and olfactory

Pheromones are examples of _____. (see book section: Concept 51.1: Discrete sensory inputs can stimulate both simple and complex behaviors)

hormones
chemical signals
visual signals
instinctive behavior
homeostasis

chemical signals

Honeybees have a remarkable way of transferring information about the location of a food source to other members of the hive. The worker bees conveying this information use _____ communication to relay this information. (see book section: Concept 51.1: Discrete sensory inputs can stimulate both simple and complex behaviors)

chemical
visual
auditory
tactile
pheromonal

visual

Graylag geese learn to follow their mothers. This is an example of _____. (see book section: Concept 51.2: Learning establishes specific links between experience and behavior)

cognitive mapping
operant conditioning
associative learning
imprinting
classical conditioning

imprinting

An aquaculture facility hatched salmon eggs and released young fish into a river leading to the ocean. The fish fed and grew in the ocean, and in a few years they returned to the facility. Because the number of returning fish was low, a scientist suggested adding a chemical to the river that would _____. (see book section: Concept 51.2: Learning establishes specific links between experience and behavior)

allow them to form a cognitive map
enable them to imprint on the facility
increase their capacity for spatial learning
provide an opportunity for associative learning
enhance social learning

enable them to imprint on the facility

A blackcap warbler from a captive migratory population is mated with another blackcap warbler from a captive nonmigratory population. The lab-reared offspring exhibit a modest amount of migratory restlessness. This behavior, which is intermediate between that of the two parents, could be interpreted as evidence that _____. (see book section: Concept 51.2: Learning establishes specific links between experience and behavior)

migratory behavior is determined exclusively by environmental factors
the differences in migratory behavior between populations are influenced by genetic differences among the populations
birds must learn how to migrate
migratory behavior cannot evolve by natural selection
None of the listed responses is correct.

the differences in migratory behavior between populations are influenced by genetic differences among the populations

When Drosophila were exposed to a particular odor and electric shock at the same time, they started to avoid the odor. This is an example of _____. (see book section: Concept 51.2: Learning establishes specific links between experience and behavior)

classical conditioning
operant conditioning
social learning
imprinting
cognitive mapping

classical conditioning

In _____, an animal learns to associate one of its behaviors with reward or punishment. (see book section: Concept 51.2: Learning establishes specific links between experience and behavior)

classical conditioning
operant conditioning
fixed-action-pattern (FAP) learning
problem solving
imprinting

operant conditioning

What kind of learning is thought to form the origin of culture? (see book section: Concept 51.2: Learning establishes specific links between experience and behavior)

classical conditioning
social learning
fixed-action-pattern (FAP) learning
problem solving
imprinting

social learning

In cross-fostering experiments, offspring of two species are switched early in development and reared by the opposite species. They are then compared with similar offspring reared by their own species. What is the point of this experimental design? (see book section: Concept 51.2: Learning establishes specific links between experience and behavior)

This experimental design demonstrates that maternal care is universal, no matter what offspring are receiving care.
This experimental design attempts to distinguish between the effects of genetics and the environment.
This experimental design reveals the source of aggression.
Animals that are cross-fostered will be easier to tame because they will have been exposed to a wide variety of species.
This method can generate animals that behave as if they were a different species, the parental one.

This experimental design attempts to distinguish between the effects of genetics and the environment.

Animal behavior is governed by complex interactions between _____. (see book section: Concept 51.3: Selection for individual survival and reproductive success can explain most behaviors)

genetic and environmental factors
genetic factors and diet
genetic factors and the behavior of the parents
the parents and their offspring
an individual and its environment

genetic and environmental factors

Which of the following best illustrates optimal foraging? (see book section: Concept 51.3: Selection for individual survival and reproductive success can explain most behaviors)

A robin will repeatedly attack any red object near its territory.
Musk oxen will form a circle to fend off a wolf attack.
Bats emerge to feed at about the same time each night.
A blackbird will warn others in the flock if it senses danger.
A sunbird will defend more fiercely flowers that produce more food.

A sunbird will defend more fiercely flowers that produce more food.

Animals that exhibit which type of mating behavior are often so morphologically similar that it is difficult to distinguish the sexes based on external characteristics? (see book section: Concept 51.3: Selection for individual survival and reproductive success can explain most behaviors)

agonistic
promiscuous
monogamous
polygamous
polygynous

monogamous

When animals engage in _____, they often perform displays that make them look as large and dangerous as possible. (see book section: Concept 51.3: Selection for individual survival and reproductive success can explain most behaviors)

courtship rituals
altruism
kin selection
mate-choice copying
agonistic behavior

agonistic behavior

Which problem below could be best explained by applying game theory? (see book section: Concept 51.3: Selection for individual survival and reproductive success can explain most behaviors)

the reason that animals practice play behavior
the reason that some species are monogamous and others are polygamous
how a species with three different phenotypes of various aggression levels can survive in the same population
how female robins build their nests
All of the listed responses are correct.

how a species with three different phenotypes of various aggression levels can survive in the same population