A&P - Chapter 7B - The Appendicular Skeleton

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For Honors Anatomy and Physiology students at Christian Life School

Know the 206 Bones of the Body and Tell How Many of Each there are.

Cranial bones:
Frontal-1
Parietal-2
Occipital-1
Temporal-2
Sphenoid-1
Ethmoid-1
Facial bones:
Mandible-1
Maxillary-2
Nasal-2
Lacrimal-2
Zygomatic-2
Palatine-2
Vomer-1
Inferior nasal conchae-2
Other bones:
Auditory ossicles - 6
Hyoid-1
Vertebral bones:
Cervical vertebrae-C1-C7
Thoracic vertebrae-T1-T12
Lumbar vertebrae-L1-L5
Sacrum
Coccyx
Rib cage:
Sternum-1
Ribs-24
Pectoral girdle:
Clavicle-2
Scapula-2
Upper Limb:
Humerus-2
Ulna-2
Radius-2
Scaphoid-2
Lunate-2
Triquetral-2
Pisiform-2
Trapezium-2
Trapezoid-2
Capitate-2
Hamate-2
Metacarpals-10
Phalanges-28
Pelvic girdle:
Os coxae-2
Lower Limb:
Femur-2
Patella-2
Tibia-2
Fibula-2
Calcaneus-2
Talus-2
Navicular-2
Cuboid-2
Medial cuneiform-2
Intermediate cuneiform-2
Lateral cuneiform-2
Metatarsals-10
Phalanges-28

Clavicle Characteristics

Slender and doubly curved (medial 2/3 convex anteriorly; lateral 1/3 concave anteriorly)
Cone shaped at sternal end and flat at acromial end
Functions to anchor muscles
Functions as an anterior brace
Easily fractured and often fractures outwardly to prevent damage to the subclavian artery

Superior border of scapula

Medial border of scapula

Lateral border of scapula

Superior angle of scapula

Lateral angle of scapula

Inferior angle of scapula

Spine of scapula

Sharp projection on the posterior of the scapula

Acromion of scapula

Enlarged, roughened triangular projection of the scapula

Acromioclavicular joint

Where the acromion and the clavicle meet and form a joint

Coracoid process of scapula

Fingerlike projection that helps to anchor the bicep muscle

Suprascapular notch

Opening for nerves and arteries to pass through at the top of the scapula

Glenoid cavity of scapula

Area on the scapula where the head of the humerus fits

Head of humerus

Part of the humerus that articulates with the scapula

Greater tubercle of humerus

Lesser tubercle of humerus

Deltoid tuberosity of humerus

Trochlea of humerus

Hourglass shaped marking on the distal and anterior end of the humerus that articulates with the ulna

Capitulum of humerus

Ball-like marking on the distal and anterior end of the humerus that articulates with the radius

Coronoid fossa of humerus

Depression on the distal and anterior part of the humerus just superior to the trochlea; receives the coronoid process of the ulna

Olecranon fossa of humerus

Depression on the distal and posterior part of the humerus that receives the olecranon process of the ulna

Olecranon process of ulna

Proximal extension of the ulna that is what we know as the elbow; fits into the olecranon fossa of the humerus

Coronoid process of ulna

Fits into the coronoid fossa of the humerus

Trochlear notch of ulna

Fits around the trochlea of the humerus

Radial tuberosity of radius

Projection that anchors the bicep muscle

Colle's Fracture

Break of the distal end of the radius usually from falling with an outstretched arm

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

An overuse injury that causes inflammation of the tendons surrounding the carpals which causes the median nerve to be compressed leading to numbness, tingling, and pain in the wrist area.

Acetabulum of coxal bone

Area on the os coxa where the three parts of the bone meet together and the head of the femur articulates

Ala of ilium (on the os coxa)

Winglike portion of the ilium

Iliac crest of ilium (on the os coxa)

Superior margin of the alae; where hands rest when you put your hands on your hips

Anterior Superior Iliac Spine of the ilium (on the os coxa)

ASIS; where the iliac crest ends anteriorly

Posterior Superior Iliac Spine of the ilium (on the os coxa)

PSIS; where the iliac crest ends posteriorly

Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine of the ilium (on the os coxa)

AIIS; projection inferior to the ASIS

Posterior Inferior Iliac Spine of the ilium (on the os coxa)

PIIS; projection inferior to the PSIS

Greater sciatic notch of the ilium (on the os coxa)

Allows for passage of the sciatic notch

Iliac fossa of the ilium (on the os coxa)

Basin like depression on the anterior ilium

Ischial tuberosity of the ischium (on the os coxa)

Strongest part of the coxal bone; what we sit on

Pubic symphysis of the pubis (on the os coxa)

Where the two coxal bones meet anteriorly

Obturator foramen of the pubis (on the os coxa)

Large opening in the middle of the ischium and pubis; allows for blood vessels and nerves to pass

Three parts of the coxal bone (os coxae)

Ilium
Ischium
Pubis

Pelvis differences between males and females

Large & heavy vs. light & delicate
Heart shaped pelvic inlet vs. oval shaped pelvic inlet
Narrow & deep true pelvis vs. wide & shallow true pelvis
Sacrum tilted forward vs. sacrum tilted back
Less than 90 degree pubic arch vs more than 90 degree

Head of femur

Knob that fits into the acetabulum of the coxal bone

Fovea capitis of the femur

Small indentation on the head of the femur

Neck of the femur

Weakest part of the femur that is often fractured during a 'broken hip' incident

Greater trochanter of the femur

Large projection of the femur that is a site for muscle attachment

Lesser trochanter of the femur

Smaller projection of the femur that is a site for muscle attachment

Lateral condyle of the femur

Lateral marking on the distal femur that articulates with the lateral condyle of the tibia

Medial condyle of the femur

Medial marking on the distal femur that articulates with the medial condyle of the tibia

Lateral epicondyle of the femur

Marking above the lateral condyle

Medial epicondyle of the femur

Marking above the medial condyle

Gluteal tuberosity of the femur

Area where the gluteus maximus muscle attaches

Medial condyle of the tibia

Proximal marking of the medial tibia that looks like a checker

Lateral condyle of the tibia

Proximal marking of the lateral tibia that looks like a checker

Tibial tuberosity

Area of the tibia where the quadriceps muscles attach via the patellar tendon

Medial malleolus of the tibia

Distal extension of the tibia that helps to make up the ankle

Anterior border of the tibia

Part of the shin that you can feel...not covered by muscle

Lateral malleolus of the fibula

Distal extension of the fibula that helps make up the ankle

Pott's Fracture

A break of the both the tibia and fibula usually occuring at the medial malleollus and lateral malleolus

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