exam 4

Created by gracielopez21 

Upgrade to
remove ads

Social control refers to techniques and strategies for preventing_______in any society.

deviant behavior

_______refers to the techniques and strategies for regulating human behavior in any society?

deviant behavior

What social groups have a role in maintaining social control?

Family, peer groups, college establishments, and the government

Sanctions are:

penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a social norm

Penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a social norm are known as

sanctions

The_____perspective emphasizes that societies literally could not survive if massive numbers of people defied standards of appropriate conduct?

functionalist

A high school student pierces her tongue and her belly button because three of her best friends have done the same thing. This is an example of

conformity

conformity

refers to going along with one's peers (individuals of a person's own status), who have no special right to direct a person's behavior?

Obedience refers to:

compliance with higher authorities in a hierarchical structure.

_______refers to compliance with higher authorities in a hierarchical structure?

obidience

Researcher________examined social obedience by conducting an experiment that required student subjects to administer "painful" shocks to subjects in an analysis of "learning"?

Stanley Milgram

Stanley Milgram conducted a study of obedience that required subjects to administer_______to other subjects in an analysis of "learning"

painful shocks

The managing editor of a newspaper, acting on an order from the publisher, fires three editors, one of whom is an old friend. This is an example of

obedience

According to the study by Stanley Milgram, individuals will

generally obey authority figures.

Social control carried out by people casually, through such means as laughter, smiles, and ridicule is known as

informal social control.

Jennifer is attending a business luncheon with several corporate executives. At one point during the meal, she reaches in front of another executive to get a saltshaker and hits the executive's arm as he is about to put a spoonful of soup in his mouth. The soup spills on his shirt, and he glares at Jennifer. The glare is an example of a (an):

informal social control

A college student interrupts the instructor during a seminar; the instructor responds with an angry glare. This is an example of:

informal social control

A person receives a smile for holding an elevator door for another person. This is an example of

informal social control

Spanking is supported by 59 percent of pediatricians in spite of the risk of harmful effects to individuals. Spanking is an example of

informal social control

Social control carried out by authorized agents--such as police officers, judges, school administrators, and employers--is called:

formal social control

Scott is arrested for "tagging," or "visual terrorism." The arrest is an example of a (an)

formal social control

A college student is caught cheating on an examination and is brought before a college-wide disciplinary committee, which decides to expel the student from the school. The committee's action is an example of

formal social control

A college fraternity is found guilty of having racist recruitment policies by the college's intrafraternity council and administration, and it is forced to suspend operations on that campus. This is an example of

formal social control

Law _____ from social norms

...

Law can be directed at____members of society

all

Law can______the behavior of social institutions

govern

From a sociological perspective, laws are created in response to perceived needs for:

formal social control

Deviance is behavior that:

violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society.

Behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society is known as

deviance

According to the sociological definition of_____we are all deviant from time to time.

deviance

______involves the violation of group norms that may or may not be formalized into law.

deviance

Deviation from norms is not always______let alone criminal

negative

A student sits in a front row, in a center seat in your sociology class and picks his or her nose throughout the class period. This is an example of

deviance

A student walks into your sociology class naked because it is hot outside. This is an example of

deviance

A student cheats on his or her first sociology examination. This is an example of

deviance

List three groups that are stigmatized in the United States today?

ugly, obese and anorexic people

Why are some groups or individuals stigmatized?

Because they do not conform to the beauty myth, these people may be viewed as "disfigured" or "strange" in appearance.

The ________perspective(s) would most likely be concerned with the stigmatizing nature of formal social controls that require convicted sex-offenders to register with police agencies and have their pictures published in newspapers to make their identity publicly known.

...

Early explanations for deviance focused strongly on:

supernatural causes or genetic factors

The contemporary study of possible genetic roots of criminality is but one aspect of the larger debate over______.

sociobiology

The genetic explanation of criminality is commonly________by sociologists

rejected

"Deviance defines the limits of proper behavior." This statement represents the view of which sociological perspective?

interactionist

In Émile Durkheim's view, the punishments established within a culture help to define_______and thus contribute to social stability

acceptable behavior

___________noted that punishments established within a culture help to define acceptable behavior and contribute to societal stability

Emile Durkheim

________is a term used in sociological literature to describe a loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective

anomie

An individual loses a job, a fortune, and a family during the Great Depression of the 1930s. This is an example of the sociological concept of_________.

anomie

________developed a theory of deviance that suggests that members of a society may conform or deviate from the culturally prescribed goals and the means of attaining those goals?

robert merton

The anomie theory of deviance was created by________.

robert merton

In his___________Robert Merton was creating a typology to explain the adaptation people make in accepting or rejecting the goals of a society

anomie theory of deviance

The most common adaptation in Merton's anomie theory of deviance is the

opposite of deviance

An innovator, according to Robert Merton, is an individual who has accepted the goals of a society but pursued them with_______regarded as improper.

means

An unemployed young adult wants a stereo, but he does not have the money or the means of earning the money that is needed to buy the stereo. His desire for the stereo overwhelms him and he steals one from a local store. This incident illustrates which theory of deviance?

innovator

Mergatroyd gets an "A" on his organic chemistry final examination because he copies most of his answers from Aloysius, the "class brain," who is sitting next to him. According to Merton's anomie theory of deviance, Mergatroyd would be classified as a (an)

innovator

In Merton's terms, people who overzealously and cruelly enforce bureaucratic regulations can be classified as

a rituaist

An employee at a welfare office is so concerned with paperwork that he does not have time to administer to the needs of the poor, hungry, and homeless individuals who seek assistance. According to Merton's theory, this welfare worker would be a (an):

ritualist

A retreatist, according to Robert Merton, is an individual who has:

basically withdrawn (or "retreated") from both the goals and the means of society.

In Merton's terms, members of a revolutionary political organizations such as the Irish Republican Army (IRA) would be typically classified as:

...

the_________sociological perspective's approach to deviance focuses on why rule violation continues to exist in societies, despite pressures to conform and obey?

functionalist

the________sociological perspective is reflected through the crime explanations offered in both cultural transmission and routine activities theory?

interactionalist

________theory was used by Edwin Sutherland to emphasize that criminal behavior is learned through social interactions with others?

cultural transmission

Meloise is in the shopping mall with her friends. Her friends begin to shoplift, and she engages in this behavior for the first time in order to retain their approval. According to Edwin Sutherland, Meloise's behavior is an example of

cultural transmission

__________used the term differential association to describe the process through which exposure to attitudes favorable to criminal acts leads to violations of rules?

differential association

Zephyr, a new student in a high school, becomes friends with a group of teenagers who use marijuana and sit during the singing of the National Anthem. Although Zephyr never used marijuana and used to sing the Anthem, she begins to engage in the same behavior as her new friends. According to Edwin Sutherland, her behavior is an example of________.

However, according to Robert Merton, her behavior is an example of_______.

differential behavior

retreatist.

Mick and Mike are brothers who have different friends. Mick's friends are the "academic type," and Mick follows in their footsteps and goes to college. Mike's friends engage in crime, and Mike follows in their footsteps and goes to prison. Which explanation of deviant behavior is illustrated by this example?

differential behavior

Jeff works in a supermarket as a cashier. His boss instructs him to include the price of a new broom that Jeff's boss has deceptively placed near the register, into everyone's total bill. Jeff's boss also encourages him to change dates on expired food items, so the items can be sold. Eventually, Jeff begins to develop his own deceptive sale practices. This is an example of

cultural transmission

Both cultural transmission theory and routine activities theory are associated with the________perspective.

interactionist

__________theory contends that criminal victimization is increased when motivated offenders and suitable targets converge.

social disorganization

_________theory notes that homes left vacant during the day or during long vacations are more accessible as targets of crime.

social disorganization

sociologist_________examined two groups of high school males—the Saints and the Roughnecks—who illustrated the importance of social class standing in the labeling process.

William Chambliss

William Chambliss concluded that a key factor in the varying fortunes of the Saints and the Roughnecks was their differing

social class

The societal reaction approach is also known as the_______approach.

labeling

Regulators of social control would most likely be the focus of_______theorists researching the power of some individuals or groups to define labels.

labeling

Researchers have discovered that students who are viewed as having "learning difficulties" are viewed more positively by teachers than those students who are viewed as "mentally handicapped" or "mentally subnormal," although there is no difference between people placed in each of these categories. This illustrates which explanation(s) of deviance?

labeling theory

A sociologist studies how a teacher's attitudes toward students affect their performance. Students of similar abilities who are "teacher's pets" perform at a high level, and students who are viewed as "troublemakers" perform poorly. This illustrates which explanation of deviance?

labeling theory

sociologist________popularized an interactionist/conflict explanation of deviance that emphasizes that the response to an act, not the behavior, determines deviance?

Howard Becker

Which conflict sociologist argues that the criminal justice system serves the interests of the powerful and that lawmaking is often an attempt by the powerful to coerce others into their own morality?

Richard Quinney

An important tenet of labeling theory is the recognition that some individuals or groups have the power to define labels and apply them to others. This view shares the emphasis on the social significance of power as purported by the:

conflict perspective

A man who is a bank president is found guilty of tax evasion. In addition to paying the government all the money he owes with substantial interest, he is sentenced to three years' probation and a $50,000 fine. At the same time, a female teller at the same bank is found guilty of stealing $500. The teller is sentenced to a prison term of no less than four years. This differential treatment would be a particular concern of which sociological perspective?

conflict

Crime is a violation of_______for which formal penalties are applied by some governmental authority

criminal law

A single woman who is engaged in illegal acts of prostitution for the purpose of supporting herself and children is most likely to be considered a________criminal.

victimless

Elliot, the president of a small corporation, has a wild weekend. He spends a night with a prostitute, illegally gambles, drinks, and uses drugs. Some would suggest he has committed various______crimes.

victimless

Feminist sociologists contend that the so-called victimless crime of prostitution, as well as the more disturbing aspects of pornography_______the misconception that women can be treated as "toys"

reinforce

A professional criminal is:

a person who pursues crime as a day-to-day occupation, developing skilled techniques and enjoying a certain degree of status among other criminals.

An important aspect of a professional criminal's work is developing

skilled techniques

The work of a group that regulates relations between various criminal enterprises involved in the smuggling and sale of drugs, prostitution, gambling, and other illegal activities is called

organized crime

_______is used to refer to crimes committed in the course of business activities?

white collar crime

A corporate vice president is convicted of attempting to bribe a presidential aide. This kind of crime is called

white collar crime

Conviction for a________crime does not generally harm a person's reputation and career aspirations nearly as much as a conviction for street crime.

white collar

Reported crime in the United States is high, and the public continues to regard crime as a_______social problem.

major

There has been a significant______in violent crime in the United States in recent years.

decline

Underreporting of crime in the United States has been a problem because members of racial and ethnic minority groups have not always_______law enforcement agencies and have often_____from contacting the police

distrust
kept

Which type of crime is unlikely to be reported in victimization surveys?

rape or spousal abuse

When Stanley Milgram conducted his study of obedience, nearly two-thirds of participants refused to administer shocks to a stranger even though the researcher said that it was a necessary part of the study.

false

Formal social controls are always carried out by the government.

false

Socialization is the primary source of conforming, obedient behavior, and obedience to the law.

true

Edwin Sutherland coined the term stigma to describe the labels society uses to devalue members of certain social groups.

false

Recent sociological research supports the position that all forms of crime and deviance have genetic roots.

false

According to labeling theorists, it is the response to a behavior and not the behavior itself that determines deviance.

true

Labeling theory was conceived as a sole explanation for deviance, according to Howard Becker.

true

Repeated protests by feminist organizations resulted in changes concerning criminal laws defining rape

true

Crimes committed by women have fallen almost 14 percent since 1993.

false

Russia is the only country in the world that incarcerates a higher proportion of its citizens than the United States.

false

Tibetan women may have more than one husband simultaneously, which allows for:

their sons to share the limited amount of good land they may inherit.

_________is a term used to refer to organized patterns of beliefs and behavior centered on basic social needs.

Social institution

The United States government is an example of a______institution.

social

Functional prerequisites are:

replacing personnel, teaching new recruits, producing and distributing goods and services, preserving order, and providing and maintaining a sense of purpose.

The_______sociological perspective suggests that a society or a relatively permanent group must accomplish certain major tasks if it is to survive.

functionalist

What important functional prerequisites was NOT fulfilled by the religious sect known as the Shakers?

Replacing personnel.

What social institution has primary responsibility for preserving order in society?

government

What social institution in the United States has the responsibility of "providing and maintaining a sense of purpose"?

government

The patriotic behavior of United States citizens after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on New York City and Washington, D.C. is a testament to the importance of:

providing and maintaining a sense of purpose.

The conflict view holds that social institutions maintain the privileges of the

most powerful individuals and groups in a society, while contributing to the powerlessness of others.

How does the textbook define family?

As a set of people who are related by blood, marriage(or some agreed upon relationship), or adoption who share the primary responsibility for reproduction and caring for members of society.

A set of people related by blood, marriage (or some other agreed-upon relationship), or adoption who share the responsibility for reproducing and caring for members of society is known as a

family

A married couple and their unmarried children living together constitute a (an):

nuclear family

A nuclear family is

a married couple and their unmarried child.

A man and his wife, their children, five Chinese shar-peis, four Siamese cats, eight parakeets, two ducks, a goat, and a dozen tropical fish live on a pretty piece of land in Woodstock, Vermont. They are an example of a (an)

nuclear family

What percentage of households in the U.S. today are nuclear family households?

50%

An extended family is

a family in which relatives-such as grandparents, aunts or uncles live in the same home as parents and their children.

A woman and her husband, her children, her parents, her mother-in-law, her sister, a parakeet, two Irish setters, a cow, and five chickens live together on a farm in the Midwest. This is an example of a(n):

extended family

A married couple, their children, and other relatives -- such as grandparents, aunts, or uncles -- living together in the same household constitute a (an):

extended family

Beverly, her husband Bob, and their two children, Barry and Bonnie is an example of

family

Monogamy refers to a form of marriage in which:

one woman and one man are married only to each other.

A form of marriage in which one woman and one man are married only to each other is known as

monogamy

Ted and Tonya have been married to each other for 3 weeks. This is an example of

monogamy

Cecil and Geneva were married on August 4, 1936, and they have spent all of those years arguing and fighting with one another. This is an example of:

monogamy

What is the name of the marital form in which a person can have several spouses in his or her lifetime but can have only one spouse at a time?

serial monogamy

Serial monogamy refers to a form of marriage in which a person can have:

several spouses in his or her lifetime but can have only one spouse at a time.

Dave is married to Sheila, but they get divorced and he marries Marlene. After they get divorced, he marries Janet, and when she dies, he marries Lorraine. This is an example of______monogamy

serial

Maria is married to Juan. Juan dies and Maria marries Carlos. This is an example of______monogamy.

serial

A man who has entered the record books by being married and divorced more than 20 times would be an example of

serial monogamy

Steve and Mary are married and then get a divorce. Steve then marries Rachel and they get a divorce, too. Steve remarries Mary and lives with her until she dies. After Mary's death, Steve marries Beth and lives with her until his death. Steve's life would be an example of:

serial monogamy

What is the general term for a marriage in which an individual can have several husbands or wives at the same time?

polygamy

Polygamy refers to a marital form in which:

an individual can have several husbands or wives at the same time.

The Oneida community existed in New York State from 1840 to 1880, and its members were all married to one another. That is, all the men in the community were married to all the women, and all the women were married to all the men. This highly religious community would be an example of

polygamy

Anthropologist George Murdock sampled 565 societies and found that over____percent of them had some type of polygamy

80

George Murdock noted that 80 percent of the 565 societies that he studied

had some type of polygamy was the preferred form.

Which term refers to the marriage of a man to more than one woman at the same time?

polygyny

In some forms of polygamy, men often marry a woman and her______.

sisters

In some societies, a man will marry a woman and her sisters; this is an example of:

polygyny

Under which marital form can a woman have several husbands at the same time?

Polyandry.

Polyandry refers to a marital form in which:

a woman can have several husbands at the same time.

only about_____percent of families in the United States are nuclear in composition.

33

The practice of polygamy steadily______throughout the twentieth century.

declined

Polyandrous cultures devalue the______of women.

social worth

Some Tibetans and the Toda tribe of India practiced female infanticide, which led to a shortage of adult women. As a result, a family was often composed of a group of brothers and a wife, whom they shared. This is an example of:

polyandry

The family is a______, and kin do not always live______.

household units
together

What pattern of descent is most typical in the United States?

...

Patrilineal descent refers to a:

favor of the father's relatives in terms of property, inheritance and emotional ties.

See More

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set