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Vocabulary from Discovering Computers Fundamentals 2011 Edition

artificial intelligence (AI)

The application of human intelligence to computers

blade server

Complete computer server, such as a Web server or network server, packed on a single card

business intelligence (BI)

Several types of applications and technologies for acquiring, storing, analyzing, and providing access to information to help users make more sound business decisions

business process automation (BPA)

Automation that provides easy exchange of information among business applications, reduces the need for human intervention in processes, and utilizes software to automate processes wherever possible

chief information officer (CIO)

Employee who directs the company's information service and communications functions

cloud computing

Internet service that provides computing needs to computer users

computer-aided design (CAD)

Software that aids in engineering, drafting, and design

computer-aided engineering (CAE)

Use of computers to test product designs

computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)

Use of computers to assist with manufacturing processes such as fabrication and assembly

computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)

Use of computers to integrate the many different operations of the manufacturing process

content management system (CMS)

An information system that is a combination of databases, software, and procedures that organizes and allows access to various forms of documents and other files, including images and multimedia content

customer interaction management (CIM)

Software that manages the day-to-day interactions with customers, such as telephone calls, e-mail interactions, Web interactions, and instant messaging sessions

customer relationship management (CRM)

System that manages information about customers, interactions with customers, past purchases, and interest

data center

Centralized location for managing and housing hardware and software

data warehouse

Huge database that stores and manages the data required to analyze historical and current transactions

decision support system (DSS)

Information system that helps users analyze data and make decisions

disaster recovery plan

Written plan describing the steps a company would take to restore computer operations in the event of a disaster. Contains four major components: emergency plan, backup plan, recovery plan, and test plan

distribution systems

Provides forecasting for inventory control, manages and tracks shipping of products, and provides information and analysis on inventory in warehouses

document management system (DMS)

System for storage and management of a company's documents, such as word processing documents, presentations, and spreadsheets

EDI (electronic data interchange)

Standard that defines how data transmits across telephone lines or other means

enterprise

Term that commonly describes a business or venture of any size

enterprise computing

Term large companies use to refer to the use of a huge network of computers that meets their diverse computing needs

enterprise hardware

Devices geared for heavy use, maximum availability, and maximum efficiency that large organizations use to manage and store information and data

enterprise information

Information gathered in the ongoing operations of an enterprise- sized organization

enterprise resource planning (ERP)

Provides centralized, integrated software to help manage and coordinate the ongoing activities of the enterprise

enterprise storage system

Strategy that focuses on the availability, protection, organization, and backup of storage in a company

e-retail

Occurs when businesses use the Web to sell products

executive management

The highest management positions in a company, which focuses on the long-range direction of the company

expert system

Information system that captures and stores the knowledge of human experts and then imitates human reasoning and decision making

extranet

Portion of a company's network that allows customers or suppliers of a company to access parts of an enterprise's intranet

failover

Process of one system automatically taking the place of a failed system

Fibre Channel

Technology used to connect to storage systems at data rates up to 4 Gbps

grid computing

Technology that combines many servers and/or personal computers on a network to act as one large computer

high-availability system

System that continues running and performing tasks for at least 99 percent of the time

human resources information system (HRIS)

Information system that manages one or more human resources function(s)

information system

Hardware, software, data, people, and procedures that a computer requires to generate information

interoperability

Sharing information with other information systems within an enterprise

legacy system

Information system that has existed within an organization for an extended length of time and is relied upon heavily

management information system (MIS)

Information system that generates accurate, timely, and organized information, so that managers and other users can make decisions, solve problems, supervise activities, and track progress

managers

Employees responsible for coordinating and controlling an organization's resources

marketing information systems

Information system that serves as a central repository for the tasks of the marketing functional unit

Manufacturing Resource Planning II (MRP II)

Extension of MRP that includes software that helps in scheduling, tracking production in real time, and monitoring product quality

Material Requirements Planning (MRP)

Approach to information management in a manufacturing environment that uses software to help monitor and control processes related to production

middle management

Level of management responsible for implementing the strategicdecision of executive management

network attached storage (NAS)

Server connected to a network with the sole purpose of providing storage

nonmanagement employees

Production, clerical, and other personnel

office information system (OIS)

Information system that enables employees to perform tasks using computers and other electronic devices, instead of manually

online banking

Online connection to a bank's computer to access account balances, pay bills, and copy monthly transactions to a user's computer

operational management

Level of management that supervises the production, clerical, and other nonmanagement employees of a company

optical disc server

Server that holds hundreds of optical discs that can contain programs and data

portal

Web site that offers a variety of Internet services from a single, convenient location

RAID (redundant array of independent disks)

Group of two or more integrated hard disks that acts like a single large hard disk

redundant components

Components used so that a functioning computer can take over automatically the tasks of a similar component that fails

sales force automation (SFA)

Software that equips traveling salespeople with the electronic tools they need to be more productive

scalability

Measure of how well computer hardware, software, or an information system can grow to meeting increasing performance demands

small- and medium-sized business (SMB)

Business that is smaller in size than an enterprise and typically does not have an international presence

storage area network (SAN)

High-speed network with the sole purpose of providing storage to other servers to which it is attached

thin client

Small terminal-like computer that mostly relies on a server for data storage and processing

transaction processing system (TPS)

Information system that captures and processes data from day-to-day business activities

virtual private network (VPN)

Network that provides a mobile user with a secure connection to a company network server, as if the user has a private line

Web services

Set of software technologies that allows businesses to create products and B2B (business-to-business) interactions over the Internet

workflow

Defined process that identifies the specific set of steps involved in completing a particular project or business process

workflow application

Program that assists in the management and tracking of all the activities in a business process from start to finish

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