Chapters 13 & 14

Created by kathrynawilliams 

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The Endocrine System The Reproductive System

acromegaly

is a rare chronic disease characterized by abnormal enlargement of extremities caused by the excessive secretion of growth hormone AFTER puberty

Addison's disease

occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough of the hormones cortisol or aldosterone, characterized by chronic, worsening fatigue and muscle weakness, loss of appetite, low blood pressure, and weight loss

adrenal medulla

middle portion of each adrenal gland

adrenalitis

inflammation of the adrenal glands

adrenomegaly

enlargement of one or both adrenal glands

adrenopathy

Any disease of the adrenal glands

aldosteronism

an abnormality of the electrolyte balance that is caused by the excessive secretion of aldosterone

aldosterone (ALD)

a corticosteroid that regulates the salt and water levels in the body by increasing sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion by the kidneys

androgens

are sex hormones secreted by the gonads, the adrenal cortex, and fat cells

antidiuretic

pertaining to a medication that decreases urine secretion

antidiurectic hormone

which is secreted by the hypothalamus and stored and released in the pituitary gland, helps control blood pressure by reducing the amount of water that is excreted through the kidneys. In contrast, a diuretic is administered to increase the amount of urine secreation

antithyroid drug

a medication administered to slow the ability of the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones

calcitonin

which is produced by the thyroid gland, is a hormone that works with the parathyroid hormone to decrease calcium levels in the blood and tissues by moving calcium into storage in the bones and teeth

chemical thyroidectomy

oral administration of radioactive iodine to destroy thyroid cells. Disables at least part of the thyroid gland, used to treat chronic hyperthyroid disorders such as Graves' disease and cancer AKA-RADIOACTIVE IODINE TREATMENT (RAI)

cortisol

a corticosteroid that has an antiinflammatory action, also regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins in the body AKA-HYDROCORTISONE

diabetes inspidus (DI)

caused by an insufficient production of the antidiurectic hormone ADH or by the inability of the kidneys to respond appropriately to this hormone (insufficient quantities of ADH [which is secreted by the hypothalamus and stored and released in the pituitary gland] results in too much fluid being secreted by the kidneys..which caused polydipsia and polyuria; if not controlled can cause severe dehydration)

diabetes mellitus

a group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both

diabetic retinopathy

occurs when diabetes damages the tiny blood vessels in the retina, causes blood to leak into the posterior segment of the eyeball and produce the damage of the loss of vision

endocrinologist

physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and mafunctions of the endocrine glands

endocrinology

study of hormones, hormone-secreting glands, and their diseases

epinephrine

stimulates the sympathetic nervous system in response to physical injury or to mental stress such as fear, it makes the heart beat faster and can raise blood pressure, also helps the liver release glucose (sugar) and limits the release of insulin AKA-ADRENALINE

estrogen

a hormone secreted by the ovaries that is important in the development and maintenance of the female secondary sex characteristics and in regulation of the menstrual cycle

exophthalmos

an abnormal protrusion of the eyeball out of the orbit

gamete

is a reproductive cell, these are sperm in the male and ova (eggs) in the female

gestational diabetes

a form of diabetes mellitus that occurs during some pregnancies, condition usually disappears after delivery

gigantism

abnormal growth of entire body that is caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone BEFORE puberty

glycogen

a polysaccharide, commonly called animal starch, which is the storage form for glucose in the liver and muscles

glucose

which is the basic form of energy used by the body AKA-BLOOD SUGAR

goiter

an abnormal nonmalignant enlargement of the thyroid gland, produces a swelling in the front and of the neck

Graves' disease

a disorder of unknown cause in which the immune system attacks the thyroid gland and stimulates it to make excessive amounts of thyroid hormone

growth hormone

regulates the growth of bone, muscle, and other body tissues AKA SOMATOTROPIC HORMONE

glucagon (GCG)

hormone secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreatic islets in response to low levels of glucose in the bloodstream increases the glucose level by stimulating the liver to convert glycogen into glucose for release into the bloodstream

gynecomastia

condition of excessive mammary development in the male, caused by a decrease in testosterone

hormones

are chemical messangers that are secreted by endocrine glands directly into the bloodstream, this enables them to reach cells and organs throughout the body

hypercalcemia

characterized by abnormally HIGH concentrations of calcium circulating in the blood instead of being stored in the bones (can lead to weakened bones and the formation of kidney stones)

hypercrinism

a condition due to excessive secretion of any gland, especially an endocrine gland

hyperglycemia

abnormally high concentration of glucose in the blood, often seen in patients with diabetes mellitus...symptoms include polydipsia, polyuria, and polyphagia AKA-DIABETIC COMA

hyperinsulinism

condition of excessive secretion of insulin in the bloodstream

hyperpituitarism

the excess secretion of growth hormone that causes acromegaly and gigantism

hyperthyroidism

the overproduction of thyroid hormones which causes an imbalance of the metabolism, symptoms include increased metabolic rate, sweating, nervousness, and weight loss....most common cause is Graves' disease AKA-THYROTOXICOSIS

hypoglycemia

abnormal low concentration of glucose in the blood...symptoms include nervousness and shakiness, confussion, perspiration, or feeling anxious or weak AKA-INSULIN SHOCK

hypophysectomy

removal of abnormal glandular tissue, preformed through the nasal passages

hypothyroidism

caused by a deficiency of thyroid secretion...symptoms include fatigue, depression, sensitivity to cold, and a decreased metabolic rate AKA-UNDERACTIVE THYROID

insulinoma

a benign tumor of the pancreas that causes hypoglycemia by secreting additional insulin

laparoscopic adrenalectomy

a minimally invasive surgical procedure to remove one or both adrenal glands

leptin

a protein hormone secreted by fat cells that is involved in the regulation of appetite (leptin leaves the fat cells and travels in the bloodstream to the brain, where is acts on the hypothalamus to suppress appetite and burn fat stored in adipose tissue)

lobectomy

surgical removal of one lobe of the thyroid gland, this term is also used to describe the removal of a lobe of the liver, brain, or lung

luteinizing hormone (LH)

stimulates ovulation in the female. In the male, the luteinizing hormone stimulates the secretion of testosterone

myxedema

caused by an extreme deficiency of thyroid secretion, symptoms include swelling, particulary around the eyes and cheeks, fatigue, and a subnormal temperature

norepinephrine

both a hormone and a neurohormone, it is released as a hormone by the adrenal medulla and as a neurohormone by the sympathetic nervous system, plays an important role in the "fight-or-flight response" by raising blood pressure, strengthing the heartbeat, and stimulating muscle contractions

pancreatalgia

pain in the pancreas

pancreatectomy

surgical removal or all or part of the pancreas, performed to treat pancreatic cancer, this procedure also involves removing the spleen, gallbladder, common bile duct, and portions of the small intestine and stomach

pancreatitis

inflammation of the pancreas, a leading cause is long-time alcohol abuse

parathyroidectomy

surgical removal of one or more of the parathyroid glands, performed to control hyperparathyroidism

pheochromocytoma

a rare, benign tumor of the adrenal gland that causes too much release of epinephrine norepinephrine, which regulate heart rate and blood pressure

pinealoma

tumor of the pineal gland that can disrupt the production of melatonin, can also cause insomnia by disrupting the circadian cycle

pinealopathy

any disease or condition of the pineal gland

pituitarism

Any disorder of the pituitary gland and its function

pituitary adenoma

slow-growing benign tumors of pituitary gland, there are 2 types
--functioning--often produce hormones in large and irregular amounts
--nonfunctioning-- do not produce any significant amounts of these hormones

polydipsia

excessive thirst

polyphagia

excessive hunger

polyuria

excessive urination

prediabetes

Condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes; considered a major risk factor for future diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

progesterone

hormone released during the second half of the menstrual cycle by the corpus luteum in the ovary, its function is to complete the preparation of the uterus for possible pregnancy

prolactinoma

benign tumor of the pituitary gland...causes pituitary gland to produce too much of the lactogenic hormone known as prolactin, can cause infertility in women and erectile dysfunction in men, and can impair vision

tetany

caused by a deficiency of parathyroid hormone; the low calcium levels in the blood lead to excitation of nerves and muscle spasms

thymectomy

surgical removal of the thymus gland

thymitis

inflammation of the thymus gland

thymopathy

any disease or condition of the thymus

thymosin

plays an important role in the immune system by stimulating the maturation of lymphocytes into T-cells

thymus

located near the midline in the anterior portion of the thoracic cavity, its posterior to the sternum and slightly superior to the heart

thyroiditis

inflammation of the thyroid gland

thyroidotomy

surgical incision into the thyroid gland

thyroid storm

relatively rare, life-threatening condition caused by exaggerated hyperthyroidism, patients may complain of fever, chest pain, palpitations, shortness of breath, tremors, increased sweating, disorientation, and fatigue AKA-THYROTOXIC CRISIS

thyroxine (t4)

one of the two primary thyroid hormones that regulate the rate of metabolism and affect the growth and rate of function of many other body systems....controlled by thyroid-stimulating hormone

adrenocorticotropic hormone

stimulates growth and secretions of the adrenal cortex

Conn's syndrome

a disorder of the adrenal glands that is caused by the excessive production of aldosterone, can cause weakness, cramps, and convulsions

cretinism

a congenital form of hypothyroidism, if treatment is not started soon after birth, will cause arrested physical and mental development

Cushing's syndrome

caused by prolonged exposure to high levels of cortisol, cortisol has an anti-inflammatory action, and it regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins in the body...symptoms include red "moon" face

electrolytes

are mineral substances, such as sodium and potassium, that are normally found in the blood

follicle-stimulating hormone

stimulates the secretion of estrogen and the growth of ova (eggs) in the ovaries of the female. In the male, it stimulates the production of sperm in the testicles

fructosamine test

measures average glucose levels over the previous 3 weeks, able to detect changes more rapidly than the HbA1c

Hashimoto's thyroiditis

autoimmune disease in which the body's own antibodies attack and destroy the cells of the thyroid gland, often leads to hypothyroidism

insulin

hormone secreted by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets in response to high levels of glucose in the bloodstream....functions in 2 way
1)when energy is needed, insulin allows glucose to enter the cells to be used as this energy
2)when additional glucose is not needed, insulin stimulates the liver to convert glucose into glycogen for storage

interstitial cell stimulating hormone (ICSH)

stimulates ovulation in the female, in the male it stimulates the secretion of testosterone

melonocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)

increases the production of melanin in melanocytes, thereby causing darkening of skin pigmentation (production usually increases during pregnancy)

oxytocin (OXT)

stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth, after childbirth, oxytocin controls postnatal hemorrhage and stimulates the flow of milk from the mammary glands (Pitocin is a synthetic form of oxytocin that is administered to induce or speed up labor

pacreatitis

inflammation of the pancreas

pituitary gland

a very small endocrine gland, AKA PINEAL BODY, is located in the central portion of the brain

testosterone

the most important of the male sex hormones. both males and females have it, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty

amenorrhea

an abnormal absence of menstrual periods for 90 days or more, can be caused by stress, hormonal problems, poor nutrition, or excessive exercise

amniocentesis

surgical puncture with a needle to obtain a specimen of amniotic fluid, usually obtained after the 14th week of pregnancy, used to evaluate fetal health and to diagnose certain congenital disorders

andropause

ADAM--is marked by the decrease of the male hormone testosterone, ususally begins in late 40's and progresses very gradually over several decades

azoospermia

the absence of sperm in the semen

cervical dysplasia

presence of precancerous changes in the cells that make up the inner lining of the cervix, can become malignant without early detection and treatment

cervicitis

inflammation of the cervix, usually caused by an infection

chlamydia

caused by the bacterium chlamydia trachomatis, is the most commonly reported STD, its highly contagious and requires early treatment with antibiotics

chorionic villus sampling

the examination of cells retrieved from the chorionic villi, which are minute, vascular projections on the chorion, test performed between the 8th and 10th weeks of pregnancy

colostrum

specialized form of milk that delivers essential nutrients and antibodies in a form that the newborn can digest

colpopexy

surgical fixation of a prolapsed vagina to a surrounding structure such as the abdominal wall

colporrhaphy

the surgical suturing of a tear in the vagina

colposcopy

the direct visual examination of the tissues of the cervix and vagina

conization

the surgical removal of a cone-shaped specimen of tissue from the cervix, this is performed as a diagnostic procedure or to remove abnormal tissue AKA-CONE BIOPSY

cryptorchidism

a developmental defect in which one or both testicles fail to descend into their normal position in the scrotum AKA-UNDESCENDED TESTICLE

dysmenorrhea

pain caused by uterine cramps during a menstrual period, pain caused in lower abdomen can be sharp, intermittent, dull, or aching

eclampsia

more serious form of preeclampsia, characterized by convulsions and sometimes coma...treatment includes delivery of fetus

ectopic pregnancy

a potentially dangerous condition in which a fertilized egg is implanted and begins to develop outside of the uterus

endocervicitis

inflammation of the mucous membranes lining of the cervix

endometrial

pertaining to the lining of the uterus

endometriosis

condition in which patches of endometrial tissue escape the uterus and become attached to other structures in the pelvic cavity

epididymitis

inflammation of the epididymis that is frequently caused by the spread of infection from the urethra or the bladder

episiotomy

a surgical incision made into the perineum to enlarge the vaginal orifice to prevent tearing of the tissues as the infant moves out of the birth canal

fibroadenoma

a round, firm, rubbery mass that arises from excess growth of glandular and connective tissue in the breast, can grow to size of plums, are benign and usually painless

fimbriae

the fringed, finger-like extensions of the infundibulum, role is to catch the mature ovum when it leaves the ovary

galactorrhea

the production of breast milk in a women who is not breastfeeding, caused by malfunction of the thyroid or pituitary gland

genital herpes

caused by the herpes simplex virus type 1 or 2, symptoms include itching or burning before the appearance of lesions on the genitals or rectum, its highly contagious, even when visible lesions are not present....there is no cure

Gynecologist

GYN physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the female reproductive system

hematospermia

the presence of blood in the seminal fluid, can be caused by infections of the seminal vesicles, prostatitis, urethritis, or urethral strictures

hemospermia

the presence of blood in the semen.

hydrocele

a fluid-filled sac in the scrotum along the spermatic cord leading from the testicles

hypomenorrhea

an unusually small amount of menstrual flow during shortened regular menstrual period

hysterectomy

the surgical removal of the uterus (procedure is further described depending upon the structures that are removed)

hysterosalpingography

a radiographic examination of the uterus and fallopian tubes, test requires the instillation of radio-opaque contrast material into the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes to make them visual

hysteroscopy

the direct visual examination of the interior of the uterus and fallopian tubes

implantation

the embedding of the zygote into the lining of the uterus

infundibulum

the funnel-shaped opening into the fallopian tube near the ovary

lactation

the process of forming and secreting milk from the breasts as nourishment for the infant

leukorrhea

a profuse, whitish mucus discharge from the uterus and vagina

mastalgia

pain in the breast AKA-MASTODYNIA

mastopexy

a mammoplasty to affix sagging breasts in a more elevated position AKA-BREAST LIFT

menarche

the beginning of the menstrual function, begins after the maturation that occurs during puberty

menometrorrhagia

excessive uterine bleeding at both the usual time of menstrual periods and at other irregular intervals AKA-INTERMENSTRUAL BLEEDING

metrorrhea

an abnormal discharge, such as mucus or pus, from the uterus

multiparous

a women who has given birth two or more times

neonate

newborn infant during the first 4 weeks after birth

nulligravida

a women who has never been pregnant

nullipara

a women who has never borne a viable child

Obstetrician

OB a physician who specializes in providing medical care to women during pregnancy, childbirth, and immediately thereafter

oligomenorrhea

term used to describe infrequent or very light menstruation in a women with previously normal periods

oophorectomy

surgical removal of one or both ovaries

orchidectomy

surgical removal of one or both testicles

orchiopexy

the repair of an undescended testicle, this is a endoscopic surgery performed on infants before the age of 1 year to move the testicle into its normal position in the scrotum

ovariectomy

surgical removal of the ovary

ovariorrhexis

the rupture of an ovary

penitis

inflammation of the penis

perimenopause

term used to designate the transition phase between regular menstrual periods and no periods at all

perimetrium

the tough, membranous outer layer of the uterus AKA-UTERINE SEROSA

Peyronie's disease

a form of sexual dysfunction in which the penis is bent or curved during erection AKA-PENILE CURVATURE

placenta previa

the abnormal placement of the placenta in the lower portion of the uterus, symptoms include painless, sudden-onset bleeding during the third trimester

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