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The Humanities: Culture, Continuity, and Change

Why probably did Brunelleschi use nine circles of horizontal ribs for the dome?

As the reverse of Dante's nine circles of hell

Why did Medici supporters hurl stones at Michelangelo's David as it was moved through the streets?

They understood David's symbolism of the city standing up to tyrants

Why does Dufay's Nuper rosarum flores repeat the fixed melody on 6, 4, 2, and 3 units per breve?

To mirror the proportions of Solomon's Temple and Florence Cathedral

According to legend, what originally had stood on the site of the baptistery?

A Roman temple to Mars

What principle did Brunelleschi master and apply to his dome's design?

Scientific perspective

Why is Leonardo's Last Supper fresco in very bad shape today?

Leonardo painted dry plaster with oil, which flakes off

Who won the competition to create a dome for Florence Cathedral?

Filippo Brunelleschi

Why does Michelangelo's Moses have horns?

A mistranslation of the Bible from Hebrew to Latin

Why in 1401 did the Florentines sponsor a competition?

To choose a designer for the city's baptistery doors

Why does Masaccio place the vanishing point in The Tribute Money behind Christ's head?

To identify Christ as the fresco's most important figure

On which Greek's work did Vitruvius base his theory of proportion?

Polyclitus

What did Niccolò Machiavelli study as inspiration for The Prince?

Roman rulers and citizens

In which Florence ruler did Machiavelli see the role model for his perfect prince?

Cesare Borgia

Why in the School of Athens does Plato point toward the heavens?

It's the realm of ideal forms

Why did Bramante apply the Vitruvian circle inscribed with a square to his church designs?

To symbolize the perfection of God

According to the chapter's "Continuity and Change" section, why did Titian become the most sought-after painter in Europe?

His portraits revealed the subjects' character and personality

What visual effect does Michelangelo's Laurentian Library steps create?

A cascading waterfall

Why did Michelangelo leave Florence for Rome in 1505?

Pope Julius II commanded him to come to Rome

Which of the following is not one of the four major areas of humanist learning that Julius II commissioned Raphael to paint on the Vatican's Stanza della Segnatura?

Mathematics

According to the ancient Roman Vitruvius, what standard should the ideal human body be eight times the size?

The head

Matthias Grünewald's Isenheim Altarpiece underscores what northern European preoccupation?

Death

What question does Hieronymus Bosch's Garden of Earthly Delights seem to ask the viewers to ponder?

What might the world be like if the fall had never happened

For what setting does the size of Robert Campin's Mérode Altarpiece suggest that it was designed?

Private devotions

Why did Flemish painters use oil instead of the tempera paint favored by the Italian Renaissance painters?

To create layers of paint that reflected light

What typical feature of northern art do the abundant symbolic elements in Jan van Eyck's Giovanni Arnolfini and His Wife Giovanna Cenami signify?

Religion

In her Heptameron, Marguerite de Navarre expressed the northern pessimism and doubt about what institution

The Church

What did patrons of works such as Robert Campin's Mérode Altarpiece and Jan and Hubert van Eyck's Ghent Altarpiece hope to gain through their financial support?

Personal salvation

Why did Bruges become the financial capital of the North?

It was home to the Medici banking interests in the region

Heinrich Krämer's Malleus Maleficarum (The Hammer of Witches) set forth what attitude about women?

They were cunning and deceitful

What is an advantage of a polyptych over a diptych or a triptych?

A polyptych allowed for different arrangements

Why did Holbein paint Nicolaus Kratzer in more subdued colors than he did More?

To portray Kratzer as a serious man of science

Where in an English sonnet is the resolution or explanation?

The last couplet

Why does Marlowe's Dr. Faustus turn to black magic?

Dissatisfaction with traditional scholarship

Tales of what land inspired in part Thomas More's ideas about an ideal society?

America

How was London's government unique in Renaissance Europe?

It was both self-governing and under royal rule

Which of the following would not be part of More's ideal society?

Education for every person

Why did Henry VIII write a tract condemning Luther and his religious reforms?

To earn a "Defender of the Faith" title from the pope

With what character from antiquity did Erasmus in his Adages seem to equate Henry VIII?

Achilles

What form became known as "Marlow's mighty line"?

Blank verse

Why during Elizabeth's reign did living in London become so desirable?

Higher wages

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