Planet Characteristics

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Who created the first planetary model

Ptolemy

What did Ptolemy Think?

The earth was the center of the solar system, and all objects revolved around the earth

Geocentric Theory

The belief that the earth is the center of the solar system

Heliocentric Theory

The belief that the sun is the center of the solar system

Copernicus

Polish Astronomer who developed the Heliocentric theory

When did Copernicus develop the heliocentric theory

1543

Tyco Brahe

Danish Astronomer who aimed to disprove Copernicus and the heliocentric theory

What did Brahe believe

That the sun revolved around the earth

Johannes Keppler

the former assistant of Tyco Brahe, who disagreed with Brahe, devised the laws of planetary motion and created the most accurate solar system to date

Galileo Galilei

The first astronomer to use a telescope and to observe the moons of jupiter, and observe the phases of venus

Sir Isaac Newton

Devised the laws of gravity in 1687, and proved kepler's law of planetary motion.

Mercury's nickname

"The morning, evening star" because it can only be seen at dawn or dusk

The hottest planet

Venus

What planet has the most poisonous atmosphere

Venus

Second hottest planet

Mercury

Second smallest planet

Mercury

Does Mercury have an atmosphere

No

Earths twin in size

Venus

Venus's nickname

morning evening star

Earths nickname

The Blue Planet

the only planet to have life and water

Earth

Mars' nickname

The red planet

The Fastest Rotator

Jupiter

Earth's twin in size

Mars

What does Mars have

polar caps

Jupiter's nickname

the red planet

The shortest day

Jupiter

What planet has the most satellites?

Jupiter

What kind of a planet is Saturn

Gas Giant

The Most distinct Ring System

Saturn

The least dense of planets

Saturn

What kind of a planet is Uranus

Gas Giant

What kind of ring system does Uranus have

a lateral ring system

What color is Uranus

aquamarine

what is the dominant gas in Uranus's atmosphere

Methane Gas

Neptune's nick name

the blue planet

What kind of a planet is neptune

gas giant

what planet has a famous blue spot

Neptune

The smallest planet

Pluto

The farthest away planet

Pluto

the coldest planet

Pluto

Inner Planets

Mars, Venus, Earth, Mercury

Outer Planets

Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto

Inferior Planets

Mercury, Venus, Earth

Superior Planets

Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto

Terrestrial Planets

Mars, Venus, Earth, Mercury, Pluto

Jovian Planets

Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune

Minor Planets

Mars, Venus, Earth Mars, Pluto

Major Planets

Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune

First law of planetary Motion

All planets orbit in ellipse

Second law of planetary motion

Equal area in equal time

third law of planetary motion

period of revolution squared = distance from the sun (in AUs) cubed

The Solar System consists of the following classes of bodies:

1) The Sun
2) The Planets
3) The Stars
4) Satellites
5) Comets
6) Asteroids

Diameter of the sun

864,000 miles

the source of the suns heat

fusion reactions

the light of the sun comes from the...

photoshpere

How many planets are there in the solar system

Nine

Satellites

small bodies that revolve or orbit around some of the planets

earth's satellite

The moon

What two planets have no satellites?

Mercury and Venus

Where is the asteroid belt located

between Mars and Jupiter

Another name for asteroid

planetoid

The diameter of the largest planetoid

500 miles

what does every planetoid revolve around

it's own orbit

The head of a comet

a coma

comet

a hazy, cloud like object with a head, and a tail that always points away from the sun .

the tail of a comet increases in length

as the comet approaches the sun

The Kuiper Belt

Where closed orbit comets originate

Oort cloud

where open orbit comets originate

Halley's comet returns every

75 years

comets that travel in closed orbits

remain with the solar system

comets that travel in open orbits

are considered visitors to the solar system

A name frequently given to meteors

shooting stars

what are meteors

masses of rock and metal wandering through space until attracted to the earth by gravity

When do we see a meteor

when they reach our atmosphere

Why are meteors visible only for an instant

because the friction in the air causes them to either explode or burn up.

Meteorite

a meteor that manages to go through earth's atmosphere, and lands on earth

What two metals are meteorites made of?

iron and nickel

During what months do meteor showers take place

August, October, November, December

Aerolite

meteorites made of rock

siderite

meteorites made of metal

Earths diameter

8000 miles

The diameter through the poles is _______ than the diameter through the equator by about 27 miles

less

oblate spheroid

flattened at the poles

Why is earth an oblate spheroid

because of centrifugal force

centrifugal force

an apparent force caused by the rotation of the earth

where is centrifugal force the greatest

the equator

Transit

an planet or object that passes between the earth and the sun

how many satellites does Jupiter have

63+

How many satellites does Mars have

2

How many satellites does Saturn have

31+

How many satellites does Uranus have

25

Why does Jupiter have an oblate shape?

because of it's rapid rotation

When was Pluto discovered

1930

Who discovered Pluto

Percius Lowel

Who discovered Saturn

Cassini and Galileo

When was Saturn discovered?

1675

Who discovered Uranus

W. Herschel

When was Uranus discovered?

1781

Who discovered Neptune

Galle

When was Neptune discovered?

1846

How far away is Mercury in AUs

.39

Venus is _______ AUs away

.72

Earth is ______ AU(s) away

1

Mars is _____ AU(s) away

1.5

Jupiter is _____ AU(s) away

5.2

SATURN IS _____AU(s) away

9.5

Uranus is _______ AU(s) away

19.2

Neptune is ______ AU(s) away

30

Pluto is _______ Au(s) away

40

1 AU = ________ miles

93,000,000

1 AU = _______ Kilometers

150,000,000

Diameter of mercury (miles)

3100

Diameter of Venus (miles)

7600

Diameter of mercury (kilometers)

4800

Diameter of Venus (kilometers)

12,000

Diameter of Earth (miles)

8000

Diameter of earth (kilometers)

12,800

Diameter of Mars (miles)

4,200

Diameter of Mars (kilometers)

6,800

Diameter of Jupiter (miles)

89,000

Diameter of Jupiter (kilometers)

143,000

Diameter of Saturn (miles)

75,000

Diameter of Saturn (kilometers)

120,000

Diameter of Uranus (miles)

32,000

Diameter of Uranus (kilometers)

51,500

Diameter of Neptune (miles)

25,000

Diameter of Neptune (Kilometers)

49,500

Diameter of Pluto (miles)

1,600

Diameter of Pluto (Kilometers)

2,400

How many satellites does Earth have

one

How many satellites does Neptune have

13

How many satellites doe Pluto have

1

Mercury's period of rotation

59 days

Mercury's period of revolution

88 days

Venus's period of rotation

244 days

Venus's period of revolution

225 days

Earth's period of rotation

24 hours

Earth's period of revolution

365 days

Mars's period of rotation

24-1/2 hours

Mars's period of revolution

687 days

Jupiter's period of rotation

10 hours

Jupiter's period of revolution

12 years

Saturn's period of rotation

10.2 hours

Saturn's period of revolution

24-1/3 years

Uranus's period of rotation

17.2 hours

Uranus's period of revolution

84 years

Neptune's period of rotation

16 hours

Neptune's period of revolution

165 years

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