The science of behavior and mental processes
A field of research that focuses on people's positive experiences and characteristics, such as happiness, optimism, and resilience.
Psychologists who analyze the biological factors influencing behavior and mental processes.
Psychologists who seek to understand, describe, and explore how behavior and mental processes change over a lifetime.
Psychologists who study the mental processes underlying judgment, decision making, problem solving, imagining, and other aspects of human thought or cognition. Also called experimental psychologists.
Clinical And Counseling Psychologists
Psychologists who seek to assess, understand, and change abnormal behavior.
Psychologists who study methods by which instructors teach and students learn and who apply their results to improving those methods
Psychologists who test IQ's, diagnose students' academic problems, and set up programs to improve students' achievement
Psychologists who assist in jury selection, evaluate defendants mental competence to stand trial, and deal with other issues involving psychology and the law.
A view developed by Freud that emphasizes the interplay of unconscious mental processes in determining human thought, feelings, and behavior.
An approach to psychology emphasizing that human behavior is determined mainly by what a person has learned, especially from rewards and punishments.
The process of assessing claims and making judgments on the basis of well-supported evidence.
In scientific research, a prediction stated as a specific, testable proposition about a phenomenon.
A factor or characteristic that is manipulated or measured in research
An integrated set of propositions that can be used to account for, predict, and even suggest ways of controlling certain phenomena
The process of watching without interfering as a phenomenon occurs in the natural environment.
A research method involving the intensive examination of some phenomenon in a particular individual, group, or situation.
A research method that involves giving people questionnaires or special interviews designed to obtain descriptions of their attitudes, beliefs, opinions, and intentions.
In an experiment, the group that receives no treatment or provides some other baseline against which to compare the performance or response of the experimental group.
The variable manipulated by the researcher in an experiment.
In an experiment, the factor affected by the independent variable.
A physical or psychological treatment that contains no active ingredient but produces an effect because the person receiving it believes it will.
A confounding variable that occurs when an experimenter unintentionally encourages participants to respond in a way that supports the hypothesis.
A research design in which neither the experimenter nor the participants know who is in the experimental group and who is in the control group.
The process of selecting participants who are members of the population that the researcher wishes to study.
A statistic, r, that summarizes the strength and direction of a relationship between two variables.
Referring to a correlation, or a difference between two groups, that is larger than would be expected by chance.
A complex combination of cells whose primary function is to allow an organism to gain information about what is going on inside and outside the body and to respond appropriately.
Fundamental unit of the nervous system; nerve cell.
Cells in the nervous system that hold neurons together and help them communicate with one another.
A fiber that carries signals from the body of a neuron out to where communication occurs with other neurons.
A neuron fiber that receives signals from the axons of other neurons and carries those signals to the cell body.
The tiny gap between neurons across which they communicate
A fatty substance that wraps around some axons and increases the speed of action potentials.
Chemicals that assist in the transfer of signals from one neuron to another.
Central Nervous System
The parts of the nervous system encased in bone, including the brain and the spinal cord.
Autonomic Nervous System
A subsystem of the peripheral nervous system that carries messages between the central nervous system and the heart, lungs, and other organs and glands.
The part of the hindbrain whose main functions include controlling finely coordinated movements and storing memories about movement, but which may also be involved in impulse control, emotion, and language.
A forebrain structure that relays signals from most sense organs to higher levels in the brain and plays an important role in processing and making sense out of this information.
A structure in the forebrain associated with the formation of new memories.
The outer surface of the brain
A massive bundle of fibers that connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres and allows them to communicate with each other.
A neurotransmitter used in the parts of the brain involved in regulating movement and experiencing pleasure.
A neurotransmitter used by cells in parts of the brain involved in the regulation of sleep, mood, and eating.
Messages from the senses that make up the raw information that affects many kinds of behavior and mental processes.
The difference between the peak and the baseline of a waveform.
The distance from one peak to the next in a waveform
The number of complete waveforms, or cycles, that pass by a given point in space every second.
The curved, transparent, protective layer through which light rays enter the eye.
An opening in the eye, just behind the cornea, through which light passes.
The colorful part of the eye, which constricts or relaxes to adjust the amount of light entering the eye.
The surface at the back of the eye onto which the lens focuses light rays.
Highly light-sensitive, but color-insensitive, photoreceptors in the retina that allow vision even in dim light.
Photoreceptors in the retina that help us to distinguish colors.
The light-insensitive point at which axons from all of the ganglion cells converge and exit the eyeball
Part of the bottom surface of the brain where half of each optic nerves fibers cross over to the opposite side of the brain.
A theory of color vision identifying three types of visual elements, each of which is most sensitive to different wavelengths of light.
A theory of color vision stating that color-sensitive visual elements are grouped into red-green, blue-yellow, and black-white elements
The process through which people take raw sensations from the environment and interpret them, using knowledge, experience, and understanding of the world, so that the sensations become meaningful experiences.
An area of research focusing on the relationship between the physical characteristics of environmental stimuli and the psychological experiences those stimuli produce.
A mathematical model of what determines a person's report that a near-threshold stimulus has or has not occurred.
The smallest detectable difference in stimulus energy
A depth cue whereby larger objects are perceived as closer than smaller ones.
A graduated change in the texture, or grain, of the visual field, whereby objects with finer, less detailed textures are perceived as more distant.
Aspects of recognition that are guided by higher-level cognitive processes and psychological factors such as expectations.
Parallel Distributed Processing
An approach to understanding object recognition in which various elements of the object are thought to be simultaneously analyzed by a number of widely distributed, but connected, neural units in the brain.
A procedure in which a neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with a stimulus that elicits a reflex or other response until the neutral stimulus alone comes to elicit a similar response.
A stimulus that elicits a response without conditioning
The automatic or unlearned reaction to a stimulus
The originally neutral stimulus that, through pairing with the unconditioned stimulus, comes to elicit a conditioned response.
The response that the conditioned stimulus elicits
The gradual disappearance of operant behavior due to elimination of rewards for that behavior.
The reappearance of the conditioned response after extinction and without further pairings of the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli
A phenomenon in which a conditioned response is elicited by stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus.
A process through which an organism learns to respond to the environment in a way that produces positive consequences and avoids negative ones
Stimuli that strengthen a response if they follow that response.
The removal of unpleasant stimuli, such as pain.
Reinforcers that meet an organism's basic needs, such as food and water.
Learning that is not demonstrated at the time it occurs
Learning how to perform new behaviors by watching others
The process of acquiring information and entering it into memory.
The process of maintaining information in memory over time
The process of recalling information stored in memory
Memory of an event that happened while one was present.
A type of memory containing generalized knowledge of the world.
The process in which people intentionally try to remember something
The unintentional influence of prior experiences
Repeating information over and over to keep it active in short-term memory.
A memorization method that involves thinking about how new information relates to information already stored in long-term memory.
Parallel Distributed Processing (Pdp) Models
Memory models in which new experiences change one's overall knowledge base.
The focusing of mental resources on only part of the stimulus field
The maintenance component of working memory, which holds unrehearsed information for a limited time.
Stimuli that are perceived as one unit or as a meaningful grouping of information.
) A relatively long-lasting stage of memory whose capacity to store new information is believed to be unlimited.
A characteristic of memory in which recall of the first two or three items in a list is particularly good.
A characteristic of memory in which recall is particularly good for the last few items in a list.
Memory that can be helped or hindered by similarities or differences between the context in which it is learned and the context in which it is recalled.
Memory that is aided or impeded by a person's internal state.
A loss of memory for any event that occurs after a brain injury
A loss of memory for events prior to a brain injury.
Strategies for placing information in an organized context in order to remember it.
Awareness of external stimuli and one's own mental activity.
A level of mental activity that is inaccessible to conscious awareness.
A level of mental activity that is not currently conscious but of which we can easily become conscious.
A level of mental activity that influences consciousness but is not conscious.
Altered State Of Consciousness
A condition in which changes in mental processes are extensive enough that a person or others notice significant differences in psychological and behavioral functioning.
d Eye Movement (Rem) Sleep
A stage of sleep in which brain activity and other functions resemble the waking state but that is accompanied by rapid eye movements and virtual muscle paralysis.
A sleep disorder in which a person feels tired during the day because of trouble falling asleep or staying asleep at night.
A daytime sleep disorder in which a person switches abruptly from an active, often emotional waking state into several minutes of REM sleep
A sleep disorder in which people briefly but repeatedly stop breathing during the night.
Horrific dream that causes rapid awakening from stage 3 or 4 sleep and intense fear for up to thirty minutes.
Frightening dream that takes place during REM sleep.
A cycle, such as waking and sleeping, that repeats about once a day.
Awareness that a dream is a dream while it is happening.
Substance that acts on the brain to create some psychological effect.
The study of psychoactive drugs and their effects
Psychoactive drug that inhibits the functioning of the central nervous system.
Psychoactive drug that has the ability to increase behavioral and mental activity.
Psychoactive drug, such as opium, morphine, or heroin, that produces sleep-inducing and pain-relieving effects
Psychoactive drug that alters consciousness by producing a temporary loss of contact with reality and changes in emotion, perception, and thought