Psychology Test 1

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What typically occurs during REM sleep?

Genital arousal

Exceptionally inhibited and fearful infants tend to become introverted adolescents. This best illustrates the long-term stability of:

temperament

Which phases of development extends from the beginnings of sexual maturity to independent adulthood?

adolescence

A research method in which an investigator manipulates the factors that potentially produce a particular behavior is called an:

experiment

The awareness that things continue to exist even when they are not perceived is known as:

object permanence

Collectivism is most likely to be emphasized in:

China

Insomnia is a disorder involving:

recurring difficulty in falling or staying asleep

In any distribution of scores, an equal number of scores are both greater than and less than:

the median

Evolutionary psychologists emphasize that adaptive behaviors are those that have promoted:

reproductive success

Sets of expected behaviors for males and females are called:

gender roles

The impact of circadian rhythms is best illustrated by:

fluctuations in energy level and alertness across the span of the day

Biological growth processes that are relatively uninfluenced by experience and that enable orderly changes in behavior are referred to as:

maturation

The deterioration of memory and thinking caused by ailments such as Alzheimer's disease or a series of small strokes, for example, is called:

dementia

Genetic influences on personality traits are most clearly highlighted by comparing ________ with __________

Identical twins raised together; Fraternal twins raised together

A student who does not cheat on tests because he doesn't want to violate classroom rules is in Kohlberg's ________ stage.

conventional

Psychologists attempt to let the facts speak for themselves by using an approach that is best described as:

empirical

What task are 55 year old adults most likely to perform just as effectively as the could 30 years earlier?

writing a story

In which research method are the same people retested over a period of years?

Longitudinal

Compared with women, men are more likely to:

perceive simple friendliness as a sexual come-on

Research indicates that most abusive parents report that they themselves were:

battered or neglected as children

Children's English accents are more likely to be influenced by their:

peers than by their parents

Non-reproductive sexual characteristics such as the deepened male voice and male facial hair are called:

secondary sex characteristics

Ethical principles developed by the American Psychological Associations and the British Psychological Society urge psychological investigators to:

ensure that research participants give informed consent before participating in the research.

When one monkeys sees a second monkey touch four pictures in a certain order to gain a banana, the first money learns to imitate the sequence. The best illustrates:

observational learning

A researcher would be most likely to discover a negative correlation between:

self-esteem and depression

Levels of self-esteem in children are highest among children with ______ parents.

Authoritative

Harmful chemicals or viruses that can be transferred from a mother to her developing fetus are called:

teratogens

B.F. Skinner was a prominent American:

behaviorist

Mirror neurons most clearly provide us with the capacity for:

imitation

Which specialists are the most likely to prescribe a drug for the treatment of a psychological disorder?

Psychiatrists

The controversy over the relative contributions of genes and experience on psychological traits is the:

nature-nuture issue

When placed under unnatural constant illumination, most animals will experience:

circadian rhythm that exceeds 24 hours

Which psychological perspective highlights the manner in which people encode, process, store, and retrieve information?

cognitive

The process by which certain birds form attachments during a critical period very early in life is called:

imprinting

According to Erikson, adolescents who are unable to develop a sense of identity experience:

role confusion

Most researchers who have examined the effects of viewing televised aggression conclude that:

viewing violence leads children and teenagers to behave aggressively

The best evidence that 4 month old infants possess visual memory capabilities comes from research on:

habituation

In an experiment designed to study the effectiveness of a new drug for treating diabetes, research participants who receive a placebo have been assigned to the ________ group.

control

As a participant in a sleep-research study for the past three nights, Tim has been repeatedly disturbed during REM sleep. Tonight, when allowed to sleep undisturbed, Tim will likely experience:

an increase in REM sleep

Recognizing whether someone's facial expression is conveying a happy smile or a self-satisfied smirk is especially difficult for those with:

autism

Research indicates that memories retrieved during hypnosis are:

often a combination of fact and fiction

Research on brian development suggests that repeated learning experiences seem to:

strengthen neural connections at the location that processes the experiences

Research on people's feelings of satisfaction with their lives indicates that:

young and older adults report being slightly happier than middle-aged adults

After the US occupation of Iraq led to a civil war rather than a peaceful democracy, some commentators perceived the result as inevitable. This perception best illustrates:

hindsight bias

When Joan touched her infant's cheek, he turned his head toward the side that was touched and opened his mouth, Joan was eliciting the reflex to:

root for nipple

To calculare the numerical value of the standard deviation, you should first compute the value of the:

mean

The complete set of genetic information in an organism's chromosomes is called the:

genome

Research on gender and aggression indicates that:

throughout the world, males are more likely than females to commit violent crimes

The whole group from which samples may be drawn is called a:

population

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