a coherent succession of single tones perceived as a whole. The main, unique, memorable part of a song.
span of pitches. The difference between the highest note and lowest note in a melody. Songs with lots of high and low notes have a wide range. Songs with all the notes in the same area have a narrow range.
secondary melody below main melody
ascending, descending, or wave. How the melody moves up or down.
distance between two pitches
movement by steps. Moves to nearby pitches, short intervals.
movement by jumps. Larger intervals between pitches.
units of meaning that make up a melody. Usually a measure.
a resting place between phrases
moves the music through time, length or duration of notes
beats that are stronger
recurrence of accented beats, organizes beats
accents every other beat
accents every third beat
accents every 4th beat. This is the most common.
strongest accented beat in a measure
top number in time signature is a multiple of 3, out of 8
placing the accent on the offbeat
movement in relationship to chords. Adds depth to music.
three or more tones sounded together-basic unit of harmony
a consecutive sequence of pitches, no skipping lines or spaces
interval of 8 notes
3 note chord w/ skipped notes between, such as 1-3-5 or 2-4-6. Most common chord in western music.
central note, "home base", first note in a scale.
Organizing notes around a tonic
only uses the 7 notes in a major/minor scale.
uses 5 additional notes not included in major/minor scale.
quality of harmony that creates tension through instability or need for resolution
stable or concordant sound, resolution of dissonance
sustained note throughout a piece of music (popular in Indian music)
a triad built off the first note in a scale. Serves as a rest chord or "home base".
chords that seek to be resolved by returning to the tonic chord.
an active chord formed by the triad starting with the 4th note on a scale. Creates a feeling of restlessness.
an active chord formed by the triad starting with the 5th note on a scale.
changing the key during a work. Creates tension and drama.
shifting the pitch of an entire work up or down so it can be sung by a different vocal range
interweaving lines of melody and harmony in music
a single voice without accompaniment
multiple voices elaborating the same melody at the same time
many voices, based on counterpoint
one voice is prominent over accompaniment. Most common in western music.
a type of homophony where all the voices move in the same rhythm
two or more lines set against one another
a musical idea is stated in one voice and then repeated in another, common in polyphony
a type of polyphony that is strictly imitative
A type of canon polyphony in which each voice enters the same melody in succession
the organizing principle of music
repeats a familiar part of the song many times in a piece. fixes the material in our minds and makes it familiar
inserts contrasting parts of the song between the familiar parts. stimulates our interest and feeds our desire for change.
some aspects of the music are altered but the original is still recognizable
the main, familiar part of the song is repeated in each stanza
AB. Statement and departure
ABA. Statement, departure and return to original statement
a melodic idea used as a building block for a larger work
small, component fragments of a theme
restating a musical idea at a higher or lower pitch level
Call and response
repetitive style involving a soloist and a group
a short musical pattern that is repeated throughout a work
complete, independent section of a large scale musical piece
rate of speed of music
solemn (very very slow)
broad (very slow)
growing softer. Also called diminuendo.
forcing an accent on a single note
device that indicates tempo
Four qualities of a tone
pitch, duration, volume, timbre
differences in quality of sound that each instrument provides
produces vibrations in the air
produce sound using air
have vibrating strings
themselves vibrate (shakers, cymbals)
have a thin stretched membrane
4 categories of western instruments
strings, woodwinds, brass and percussion