chapter 1 and 2 test

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T or F. affluenza increases mans ecological footprint and compromises environmental quality

true

T or F. decreasing population growth in developed countries will decrease resource consumption

false

T or F. the per capita ecological footprint is the availability of productive land and usable water to support the population with no consideration for environmental impact

true

T or F. private ownership is a possible solution to the problem of people exploiting a free-access resource but may not be practical for global common resources

true

T or F. developing countries have a high GDP which proposes a threat to their ability to become environmentally sustainable

false

T or F. output population control exemplifies the idea that "there is no way away"

true

T or F. developing countries have a significant negative affect on the environment because of the consumption per person and technological impact per unit of consumption

true

T or F. people in developing countries have a greater ecological footprint than those of developed countries

false

T or F. the 'tragedy of the commons' refers to lack of agricultural sustenance available for the common people in a country

false

T or F. natural capital degradation is a by-product of economic development

true

T or F. pollution cleanup is considered to be a short-term solution if population and consumption levels grow without corresponding improvement in population control technology

true

T or F. exponential growth of the worlds population has slowed, but slowed has not ended

true

T or F. using free-access resources slightly above their estimated sustainable yields will increase the availability of those resources

false

T or F. poverty does not affect population growth

false

T or F. countries experiencing affluenza allows them to obtain the resources they need from almost anywhere in the world without seeing the harmful environmental impacts of their high-consumption life-styles

true

an environmentally sustainable society

all of the above- manages its economy and population size, satisfies the needs of its people, protects the prospects of future generations, and meets the needs of its people without jeopardizing the needs of future generations

exponential growth

starts out slow and then becomes very rapid

the market value in dollars of good and services produced in a country for use within a year is the

gross domestic product

what is true generalization about developing countries?

they use only about 10% of the world's resources

economic growth

is measured in gross domestic product and purchasing power parity

what is not a renewable resource

oil

what is an example of reuse?

using a plastic butter tub to store leftovers

point source pollution includes all of the following except

runoff from agricultural land

resources that are called nonrenewable

are capable of economic depletion

economic growth is NOT (except question)

accomplished by minimizing the flow of matter and energy through an economy

nonpoint sources of pollution do not include

a smokestack from a power plant

output pollution control efforts can be ineffective because

all of these- they often transfer pollutants, cost, temporary measure

the three-factor model of environmental degradation and pollution do not include

the climate in which people live in

an unsustainable addiction to materialism that is driven by economic forces and causes large amounts of pollution and environmental degradation is best known as

affluenza

what revolution led to a shift from rural villages to more urban societies?

industrial-medical

the frontier environmental world-view encourages

resource exploitation

the ability of the environment to function indefinitely is known as

environmental sustainability

what is the best illustration of tragedy of the commons?

depletion of an aquifer by regional farmers

negative impacts associated with large-scale hydroelectric projects have been demonstrated in

james bay, quebec

the increase in the size of earths population in the last century has been dramatic. what are two major contributors to this increase?

industrial revolution and modern medicine

natural capital includes all of the following except (sunlight, air, water, soil, nutrients)

sunlight

when new information of ideas can disprove or overthrow a well-accepted scientific theory it is called

a paradigm shift

positive feedback loops

accelerate the change and are infinite

a thermostat keeping your house within a certain acceptable temperature range is an example of

homeostasis

which of the following does not illustrate a time delay? (smoker develops lung cancer, fox eats rabbit, CFCs depleat ozone, increase carbon dioxide enhances greenhouse effect)

fox eats rabbit

example of a situation where a long time delay results in environmental degradation include

depletion of ozone layer

when time delays allow a problem to build up until there is a fundamental shift in the behavior of a system, it is called

a tipping point

the community knew the effects of Chemical X alone and Chemical Z alone. they are released into the environment together and caused a massive fish kill. this could be

synergistic reaction

you are visiting a developing country. compared to a developed country, you would expect to find a

higher percentage of population growth

use of natural resource based on sustainable yield applies to

renewable resources

which of the following best describes environmental degradation?

letting agricultural runoff cause oxygen depletion and fish kills downstream

all non renewable resources can theoretically be

exhausted or depleted

you generally buy and eat microwave dinners. after dinner, cardboard tops and plastic trays remain. the least effective way to deal with this type of solid-waste problem would be to

collect the components and incinerate them so they dont take up landfill space

pollution cleanup efforts can be ineffective because

all of these- they often transfer pollutants, cost too much to reduce levels, they can be overwhelmed

root causes of environmental problems include

rapid population growth

sustainable development can be distinguished from economic development by its emphasis on

leaving resources in good condition for future generations

when a resource is economically depleted we can

all of these- recycle or reuse existing supplies, waste less, develop substitutes

what is representative of an environmental wisdom worldview?

energy and materials efficiency must continually be improved

in order to make one plastic soda bottle, approximatly 100 liters of crude oil are used, 100 kg of steel,. and 100 liters of water and other materials. this describes what situation?

the low material efficiency of plastic bottles

earth is essentially a closed system for

matter

all of the following are broken down by biological action except

lead and mercury

the least effective way to deal with nondegradable pollutants

remove them from contaminated air, water, or soil

nuclear changes are governed by

the law of conservation of matter and energy

which of the following comparisons of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion is correct?

nuclear fusion is harder to initiate than nuclear fission

earth is essentially an open system for

energy

FALSE STATEMENT-energy conversion results in higher quality energy

see front

does not apply to second law of energy

energy can neither be created nor destroyed

the matter and energy laws tell use that we can recycle

matter but not energy

a high-throughput economy sustains economic growth by

maximizing the rate of energy and matter sources used

FALSE STATEMENT- matter-recycling society becomes independent of high-quality matter because materials can continue to be recycled

see front

a low-throughput economy would not

create goods with a short life cycle to increase recycling

only about 10% of the potential energy of gasoline is used in power an automobile. the remaining energy is lost as low-quality heat. this is and example of

the second law of thermodynamics

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