The ability to respond to stimuli and convert them into nerve impulses
the ability to transmit an impulse
Resting membrane potential
Difference in electrical charge across the plasma membrane. The membrane would be POLARIZED.
Sodium Potassium Pumps
How does the membrane maintain the difference in electrical charge established by diffusion of ions?
What is the resting membrane potential of a frog?
-40mv and -90mv
What is the resting membrane potential in a human?
The amt of stimulus needed to create an action potential. NA+ rushes into the cell increasing the number of positive ions inside the cell and changing the membrane polarity
The interior surface fo the membrane becomes less negative and the exterior surface becomes less positive
K+ moves out of the cell causing the membrane potential to move in a negative direction.
The membrane has become more negative than resting potential. Until the channels close.
Absolute Refractory Period
What period is it when the sodium ion channels are open, the membrane is totally insensitive to additional stimuli, regardless of the force of the stimulus?
Relative Refractory period
What period is it during repolarization, the membrane may be stimulated if a very strong stimulus is used?
Another name for the action potential in neurons.
Compound nerve action potential
The cumulation of action potential of all neurons in a nerve
deep pressure, cold temperature
Name a couple of physical factors that can inhibit a nerve impulse.
What toxin blocks synaptic transmission by preventing the flow of neural impulses from neuron to neuron?
What is the name of the velocity of the action potential along a neural membrane?
larger the nerve the faster the conduction velocity, myelinated nerves are faster than unmyelinated nerves
What is the relationship between myelination and size and conduction velocity?
Form the supportive framework for the nervous tissue; contact and stimulate blood capillaries; convert blood glucose; secret proteins; regulate chemical composition of tissue fluid
Phagocytize and destroy microorganisms, foreign matter, and dead nervous tissue
Line cavities of the brain and spinal cord; secrete and circulate cerebrospinal fluid
Form the myelin in the brain and spinal cord
the PNS glial cell that forms myelin
the PNS glial cell that surrounds the dorsal root ganglion neurons
carry signals toward the CNS from the body periphery; sensory neurons
CNS - Central Nervous System
the brain and spinal cord collectively
a neuron that conducts impulses away form the CNS to muscles and glands; motor neurons
collection of nerve cell bodies found outside the CNS
neuron serving as part of the conduction pathway between sensory and motor neurons; association neurons
specialized supporting cells in the CNS
a chemical released at the distal end of an axon that stimulates an adjacent cell; found in the synaptic vesicles of the axon terminal; initiates electrical current from one neuron to the next by diffusing across the synaptic cleft
a cordlike organ of the PNS composed of multiple nerve fibers ensheathed in connective tissue
a bundle of nerve processes
PNS - Peripheral Nervous System
Ganglia and spinal and cranial nerves
junction or point of close contact between neurons
impulse generator and transmitter
region of the cell body from which the axon generates
receptive region of a neuron
insulates the nerve fibers
may be involved in the transport of substances within the neuron
Neuronal Cell Body
site of the nucleus and most important metabolic area
essentially rough endoplasmic reticulum, important metabolically
one axon and multiple dendrites; efferent neurons and interneurons are multipolar
one axon and one dendrite
one single process leading away from the soma; afferent neurons are unipolar
surrounds each nerve fiber
binds groups of fibers together to form bundles
binds all of the fascicles together
nerves carrying both sensory and motor fibers