Mastering Micro HW CHap 17/18

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41 terms

Which type of adaptive immunity does the following statement describe?
This type of immunity is acquired via injection of antibodies from an individual or host that has immunological memory to the specific pathogen or antigen.

artificially acquired immunity

Which type of adaptive immunity does the following statement describe?
This type of immunity is acquired via the passing of antibodies from a mother to a child to give immunity during the development of the child's immune system.

naturally acquired passive immunity

Which type of adaptive immunity does the following statement describe?
This type of immunity is acquired when a person is vaccinated for a specific type of infection via the introduction of antigens. These antigens normally have undergone some type of modification and may not confer the same type of long-lasting memory that would occur with unmodified antigens.

artificially acquired active immunity

Which type of adaptive immunity does the following statement describe?
This type of immunity is acquired when antigens enter the body and an infection occurs. The immune system works to fight the infection via the innate and adaptive immune responses and creates an immunological memory of that particular antigen.

naturally acquired active immunity

Which of the following statements concerning immunological memory is true?
ANSWER:
The memory response involves only B cells.
Antibodies produced in response to a secondary infection are mostly IgM.
The memory response is due to production of long-lived cells that can respond very rapidly upon second exposure.
The memory response is usually faster but not as strong.

The memory response is due to production of long-lived cells that can respond very rapidly upon second exposure.

If a patient has been exposed to an antigen for the first time, which class of immunoglobulin appears first?

IgM

Consider a helminthic infection in which an individual is colonized by a parasitic worm. The worm is too big to be engulfed by a phagocytic cell. How does the immune system respond?
ANSWER:
The worm gets coated with antibodies, which activate other cells in the immune system to secrete chemicals that kill it.
Numerous phagocytes work cooperatively to ingest the worm.
Blood flow is reduced to the area, which starves the worm of nutrients.
Antibodies bind to the worm and disrupt its plasma membrane.

The worm gets coated with antibodies, which activate other cells in the immune system to secrete chemicals that kill it.

An individual may be exposed to a pathogen and become infected without actually getting sick. This is known as a subclinical infection. Even in subclinical infections, the individual's adaptive immune system can generate memory for the pathogen. What type of adaptive immunity is this?
ANSWER:

naturally acquired active immunity

Which of the following statements concerning antigen-presenting cells is true?
ANSWER:
They are found only in lymphoid tissues.
They transport antigens to the liver, where they can be degraded.
They are a type of T cell.
They are involved in activating T cells.

they are involved in activating T-cells

Which immunoglobulin class, found in blood, lymph, and the intestine, can cross the placenta and help to protect a fetus?

IgG

What is the correct sequence of events for activation of a B cell by a T-dependent antigen?
ANSWER:
Identical repeating subunits on the antigen bind to many of the antibodies on the surface of the B cell. This activates the B cell.
(1) Immunoglobulin receptors on the B cell recognize and bind the antigen. (2) An antigen fragment in complex with MHC class 2 is displayed on the B cell's surface. (3) The MHC-antigen complex binds a receptor on a TH cell. (4) The TH cell secretes cytokines that activate the B cell.
The T cells binds to an antibody on the B cell. The T cell secretes cytokines. The B cell binds the antigen. The B cell is activated by binding to the antigen.
The B cell binds to a cytokine and then interacts with the TH cell. This causes the B cell to bind the antigen, and then the B cell is activated.

(1) Immunoglobulin receptors on the B cell recognize and bind the antigen. (2) An antigen fragment in complex with MHC class 2 is displayed on the B cell's surface. (3) The MHC-antigen complex binds a receptor on a TH cell. (4) The TH cell secretes cytokines that activate the B cell.

Which of the following statements concerning cellular immunity is FALSE?
ANSWER:
Cellular immunity involves cells that recognize antigens and make specific antibodies against them.
The thymus is necessary for development of cells involved in cellular immunity.
T cells respond to antigens when the antigens bind to receptors on their surface.
The lymphocytes involved with cellular immunity are found primarily in lymphoid organs and blood.

Cellular immunity involves cells that recognize antigens and make specific antibodies against them.

includes cilia, mucous membranes and dendritic cells

innate immunity

immunological response brought about by antibody production

humoral immunity

immunological response that kills infected host cells

cellular immunity

Uses BCRs to recognize epitopes. First step is clonal selection

immature B cells

Phagocytes that engulf anything foreign. Eventually displays epitope to helper T cells using MHC I or II

dendritic cells

lymphocytes that activate B cells and CTL's

T helper cells

differentiated B cells that are stored in lymph nodes to provided future protection by the same pathogen

memory cells

produce and secrete antibodies

plasma cells

kills infected host cells

cytotoxic T cells

What does a vaccine contain?

weakened or killed pathogen or parts of a pathogen

When a person has previously been vaccinated against a viral pathogen, which cells are activated if that same pathogen re-enters the host's cells months or years later?

memory cytotoxic T cells

What is the primary benefit of vaccination?

An immune response will occur quicker upon future exposure to the pathogen.

Which type of vaccine could possibly cause a person to develop the disease?

attenuated live vaccine

What is the hallmark of a conjugated vaccine?

These vaccines contain weakly antigenic elements plus a more potent antigenic protein.

What is the function of boosters?

Boosters are injections that are given periodically to maintain immunity.

BCG is a vaccine against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The vaccine is composed of a live Mycobacterium bovis variant called bacillus of Calmette and Guérin. This is an example of which type of vaccine?

attenuated whole agent vaccine

To vaccinate children against the bacterial infection diphtheria, pure diphtheria toxin is chemically modified and injected as a vaccine. This is an example of which type of vaccine

toxoid vaccine

Patients can receive one of two different types of influenza vaccine, both of which use whole viruses. The nasal spray uses live virus and is an example of a(n) ________ vaccine, while the injection uses killed virus and is an example of a(n)___________ vaccine.

attenuated whole agent, inactivated whole agent

Which of the following best describes vaccination?
ANSWER:
An individual is exposed to a killed pathogen, an inactivated pathogen, or a component of a pathogen. The individual is protected from subsequent exposures to the pathogen because the body has an inflammatory response, which protects the individual from subsequent exposures.
An individual is exposed to a killed pathogen, an inactivated pathogen, or a component of a pathogen. The individual is protected from subsequent exposures to the pathogen because the adaptive immune system is stimulated to produce memory B cells and memory T cells, which protect from subsequent exposures.
An individual is exposed to a killed pathogen, an inactivated pathogen, or a component of a pathogen. The individual is protected from subsequent exposures because the body produces macrophages that live a long time and can remember the pathogen.
An individual is exposed to a killed pathogen, an inactivated pathogen, or a component of a pathogen. The individual is protected from subsequent exposures to the pathogen because the innate immune system is stimulated.

An individual is exposed to a killed pathogen, an inactivated pathogen, or a component of a pathogen. The individual is protected from subsequent exposures to the pathogen because the adaptive immune system is stimulated to produce memory B cells and memory T cells, which protect from subsequent exposures.

Which of the following is NOT an advantage of using live attenuated vaccines?
ANSWER:
They often produce a more complete type of immunity that includes both humoral and cell-mediated components.
They often do not require boosters.
They are usually highly effective.
They are usually safer than other types of vaccines.

They are usually safer than other types of vaccines.

What is an adjuvant?

a chemical additive that increases the effectiveness of vaccines

I have a new test for determining whether a patient is infected with the influenza virus. It is very specific but not very sensitive. What does this mean?

False-positives will be rare, but false-negatives may happen frequently.

Which of the following is NOT a reason why monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) are useful?
ANSWER:
They are always highly sensitive.
They are uniform.
They can be produced in large quantities.
They are highly specific.

They are always highly sensitive.

__________ reactions are used to detect antibodies for relatively large pathogens, such as bacteria. For these tests, the antigen is mixed with the test sample at various dilutions. Reaction mixes are then monitored for the formation of visible aggregates.

agglutination

Direct fluorescent-antibody techniques are frequently used to __________.

detect microorganisms in a clinical sample

What is the purpose of conjugated vaccines?

to enhance the immune response of children to polysaccharide antigens

What is the function of myeloma cells used in the production of monoclonal antibodies?

They are immortal cells capable of continuous growth.

Which step in the production of monoclonal antibodies must necessarily precede all other steps in the process?

A specific antigen is used to induce production of a specific antibody.

Monoclonal antibodies:

can attach to a target cell while carrying a diagnostic marker or anticellular toxin

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