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language

the system of words people use to communicate

symbols

something (such as a word) that stands for something else

interpretations

an individuals internal process of assigning meanings to words

tone

use of language to set the mood or atmosphere associated with a speaking situation

slang

informal, nonstandard language, often used within a particular group

jargon

technical language used by members of a profession or associated with a specific topic

idioms

an expression that means something other than the literal meaning of the words: kick the bucket

euphemisms

a word used in place of another word that is viewed as more disagreeable or offensive: adult films instead of pornography

cliches

an expression so overused it fails to have any important meaning

tag questions

a question added on to then end of a declarative statement that lessons the impact of the statement

hedges

a qualifier, such as probably, that makes a statement ambiguous

nonsexist language

words that are not associated with either sex

inclusive language

words that dont privelege one group over another

parallelism

using the same phrase, wording or clause multiple times to add emphasis

rhymes

using words with similar sounds, usually at the end of the word, to emphasize a point

alliteration

repition of a sound in a series of words, usually the first consonant

antithesis

juxtaposition of two apparently contradictory phrases that are organized in a parallel structure

invitations to imagine

asking listeners to create a scene or situation in their minds

T or F. Slang is technical language associated with a specific profession or subject.

false

T or F. The meaning of words does not change over time

false

T or F. If you are concerned that you may offend you audience with certain words, you can use idioms in place of the disagreeable words.

false

T or F. There is no direct link between objects and words

true

T or F. Non-inclusive language promotes discrimination and stereotyping, even if the speakers word choices are unintentional

true

T or F. Similies, metaphors, rhymes, and alliteration are examples of using visual language in a speech.

true

T or F. ALL words are symbols that stand for something else.

true

T or F. There is no direct relationship between a word and the thing it represents.

true

T or F. Connotative meanings are formal, or literal, meanings - like the definitions you find in dictionaries.

false

T or F. Language is actively changing and evolving.

true

T or F. The culture we live in shapes our language

true

T or F. The problem with labels like "lady lawyer," "man hours" or "chairman" is that they can be perceived as sexist language.

true

T or F. According to your textbook, new words enter the English language daily.

true

T or F. Your language is likely more formal in everyday speaking than when presenting a speech.

false

T or F. . It is a good idea to include verbal hedges in your language so your audience will not be offended.

false

T or F. Your speech should strive to include ambiguous language.

false

"His name fits him like a glove" is an example of which type of language devise?

similies

Because of the fleeting nature of spoken language, you need to build redundancy into your speech. You do this through ________.

reviews,
internal summaries,
previews

The meanings of words are arbitrary. This means that

different groups of people have different words that stand for the same thing

Bill looks up the definition of a word in his dictionary. The type of definition he will find there is:

denotative

The meanings words conjure up exist

in your mind

Language and culture are

inseparable

Informal language typically used in an interpersonal setting is referred to as ______.

slang

"You had better keep your nose to the grindstone if you are going to finish on time!" This is an example of __________.

an idiom

Words such as "likely" and "probably" qualify what the speaker is saying and are called _____.

hedges

Tag questions and hedges are usually associated with _______.

powerless language,
a speaker's self-doubt,
uncertainty

Which of the following words is nonsexist

firefighter

Which type of language needs redundancy?

spoken language

LaTonna states in her speech, "Seventeen million children in the United States experience hunger each day. How do you suppose it feels to go to bed hungry?" What language technique is LaTonna using to spark her audience imagination?

invitation to imagine

When you choose words in your speeches that do not privilege one group over another, you use ________.

inclusive language

When speakers use the same phrase or wording multiple times to add emphasis, they are using __________.

parallelism

Which quality of language was NOT discussed in your textbook

Language is alliterate

_______________ is technical language associated with a profession or subject.

jargon

"The assignment was to collect six sources, don't you think?" is an example of a(n) ___________.

tag question

Which of the following guidelines for using language in your speech was suggested in your text?

Choose meaningful words,
Be concise,
Build in redundancy

Sharla made a mistake in her speech but she cannot "take it back," this is an example of which property of language?

language is irreversible

"Fat flogs flying past fast" is an example of which language device?

alliteration

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech repeats the phrase, "I have a dream..." and this is an example of which language device?

parallelism

Which of the following help you personalize your language?

Use pronouns "I", "you" and "us",
Discuss shared experiences,
Referring to specific people in the audience

Language that needlessly emphasizes someone's race, class, gender, age, dis/ability, sexual orientation or other marker is likely an example of ____________________.

non-inclusive language

Donna Joy ended her persuasive speech with "if you know its true, then it's what you have got to do," this is an example of which language device?

rhyme

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