Final

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CH. 10-14,16

Under the bounded rationality model of problem solving and decision making

managers are comfortable making decisions without identifying all options

The cognitive style that exhibits a preference for data and a detailed, objective approach to decision making is:

sensing/thinking

The fourth step in the Z model of problem solving is

impact analysis

step one of the Z model corresponds to the ____ cognitive style

sensing/thinking

An incorrect assumption about the use of intuition in making decisions is that

it is seldom a positive force

Generally NOT associated with creative abilities or creativity

concern for failure

an organization could increase creativity by doing what?

eliminate office walls and cubicles

Research on the impact of moods on tasks that involve considerable cognitive demands suggests

Negative moods result in better performance

Responsive creativity is

responding to a problem that is presented to you by others because it is part of your job.

An approach to minimize groupthink is to

re-examine the preferred solution even if consensus has been reacheed

A group approach to decision making tends to be appropriate when

employees may be in conflict over preferred solutions

The social comparison approach and persuasive arguments view have both been used to explain

group polirization

Recent research examining the effects of cultural diversity on decision making has found that when individuals in a group are racially dissimilar

they arrive at better decisions than racially similar groups

Intuition would be amajor part of the input for a manager making what kind of decision

nonprogrammed

The rational model of decision making assumes

That the decision maker can calculate the probability of success for alternatives

Kanter's focus on power is in terms of one's:

ability to exercise power and do things for others, particularly persons in need

When both men and women witness political behavior and the agent is of their gender and the target is of the opposite gender, evidence suggests:

men and women will view the political behavior more positively

As a management trainee, you are assigned to a mentor and gain considerable insight into the nature of management and how to behave in different managerial situations. The relationship you have with the mentor is based on _____ power.

referent

If a manager asks an employee to purchase a gift for his wife, the employee would think this request

falls outside his zone of indifference

To be considered ethical, power related behavior must meet

the distributive justice criterion
the utilitarian criterion
the individual rights criterion

Research on influence tactics indicates that _____ tactics are least used.

exchange

Korda's symbols of power focus on status or:

a person's relative standing in a group based on prestige and having other people defer to him or her

If your boss exhibits a participatory style of managing, an appropriate influence tactic for you is

coalition building

When a firm is preparing for bankruptcy, the accountants as a group may become unduly powerful because of

their nonsubstitutability

Which base of power has the strongest relationship with performance and satisfaction?

expert

Self-management or the highest level of empowerment represents

decision-making control over job content and job context

Which of the following influence tactics would likely have the most negative effect in your attempt to influence a decision with respect to promotability

ingratiation

Former Illinois Governor Rod Blagojevich tried to sell President Barack Obama's Senate seat for money. It was also reported he attempted to trade the seat for money, ambassadorships, and even a $150,000 salary for his wife. This is an example of the use of:

personal power

Which of the following set of dimensions comprise the essence of empowerment

meaning, competence, self-determination, and impact

McClelland has found that the best managers are those who have

a high need for social power and a low need for affiliation

When considering the type of leadership style exhibited according to the behavioral theories, which of the following is most accurate?

Situational characteristics are not important because the leader's style does not vary over different situations.

Blake and Mouton's Leadership Grid identifies "authority-compliance" management with the folowing charcteristics:

employees abide with strict requirements and considerable daily pressure to meet schedules and quotas

Fiedler's "Contingency Theory of Leadership" proposed that if you found yourself managing a situation where you had good relationships with employees, the task you had been assigned was well-structured, and you were also able to exercise strong position power; then in such a situation your leadership behavior and management style should be:

task-oriented

According to Fiedler, the effectiveness of leaders is dependent on

the favorableness of their situation

The variables used to determine the most appropriate leader behavior in House's path-goal theory are:

follower characteristics and task characteristics

In the Hersey-Blanchard leadership model, the leadership style most appropriate with very mature followers is:

delegating

The telling style of leadership in the Hersey-Blanchard leadership model entails:

low concern of relationships and strong initiating structure

Kotter suggests that leadership and management:

are two distinct, yet complementary systems of action in organizations

When comparing autocratic leadership style to democratic leadership style, democratic leaders

do not closely supervise and allow employee initiative and decision making

According to the Michigan studies on leadership, a work environment characterized by constant influence attempts on the part of the leader through closer supervision or written rules and regulations is likely the result of:

production-oriented style

The Vroom-Yetton-Jago normative decision model helps leaders and managers know:

when to have employees participate in the decision-making process

In the Hershey-Blanchard situational leadership model, maturity is determined by:

a follower's ability and willingness to accept responsibility for completing work

A multidimensional construct that includes transformational, charismatic, or transactional leadership as the situation might demand is known as:

Authentic Leadership

In contrast to leadership, the topic of followership has

not been extensively researched

Followers who tend to be passive but capable of independent and critical thinking are

alienated

When an intrapersonal conflict forces us to choose between right and right, the situation is called a

defining moment

Long lasting and difficult conflicts between individuals usually stem from differences in:

perceptions

The behavioral tendencies associated with an equal versus equal power relationship is

the tendency to compete

In research on styles of conflict management, the _____ style was least effective.

avoiding

Which of the following is NOT a structural cause of conflict in organizations?

skills and abilities

You have a problem with your computer, so you call the company that made it. They inform you that the problem is caused by software, so you call the software division and they tell you it's the hardware. This is an example of:

jurisdictional ambiguities

Estimates show that managers spend what percent of their time dealing with conflict?

21%

When contrasting American and Japanese business cultures, Americans tend to _____, whereas the Japanese prefer _____.

be individualistic; collectivism

Person-role conflicts typically stem from differences in _____ between the focal person and the organization or work group.

values

Suppose a manager receives counseling from her department head that she needs to socialize less with the nonmanagement employees. She also is told by her project manager that she needs to be a better team member, and that she can accomplish this by socializing more with the other nonmanagement team members. This is an example of:

intrarole conflict

When two departments are in conflict but are also facing a common threat, the _____ style of conflict management is most appropriate.

collaborating

Two of your employees are having a disagreement over the scheduling of a production run. An appropriate way to resolve this conflict is:

negotiate with the parties

To avoid dysfunctional conflicts in virtual teams, a manager should:

make sure their tasks fit their methods of interacting

When a child gets sick at school, the parent often must leave work to care for the child. This would be an example of:

interrole conflict

Which of the following defense mechanisms takes the form of aggressive behavior directed at someone else who is not the source of the conflict?

displacement

A shortcoming of work simplification is that:

it undervalues the human capacity for thought and creativity

Both job enrichment and job enlargement were intended to increase:

job satisfaction for employees

Enlarging a job is most closely associated with which of the following core job characteristics?

skill variety

The anthropocentric job design approach places:

human considerations at the center of job design decision

In the design of jobs and work organizations, Germans:

value hierarchy and authority relationships

A job is defined as:

specific work and task activities

Job enlargement was developed to overcome the problem of:

boredom associated with scientific management's approach to jobs

The problem of overspecialization has been addressed by:

increasing the variety in jobs

A significant difference between job enlargement and job enrichment is that:

enrichment vertically loads a job whereas enlargement horizontally loads a job

A problem with job enrichment as a strategy for work design is:

that it is based on an oversimplified motivational theory

The degree to which a job entails completion of a whole task or complete sequence of tasks is:

task identity

People whose jobs are high on the five core dimensions are generally:

more motivated, more satisfied, and more productive than others

Ergonomics is used in the _____ approach to job designs

perceptual/motor

The sociotechnical system gives:

equal attention to technical and social considerations in job design

Employees may experience technostress when

electronic performance monitoring is used

The key to understanding culture through artifacts lies in:

figuring out what they mean

Strong cultures facilitate performance in all of the following ways except:

insulating employees and focusing their attention away from the organization's environment

An adaptive organizational culture is one that:

encourages confidence and risk taking among employees

Corporate leaders can greatly influence and shape organizational culture through:

consistently demonstrating corporate values in measuring and rewarding employee performance

Anticipatory socialization takes place through

realistic job previews

Employee performance expectations are normally made known through

communication of role demands

Changing an organization's culture is difficult because:

assumptions are deeply ingrained, even below consciousness

Which of the following include the three levels of culture identified by Edgar Schein?

artifacts, values, and basic assumptions

An early fall semester convocation on your campus can be considered a:

rite of renewal

An example of a rite of enhancement is a/an:

employee of the month award

Assumptions are:

deeply held beliefs that guide behavior of organized members

The strong culture perspective states that organizations with strong cultures:

perform better than other organizations

What perspective of culture would be best for a company that wants to compete globally?

the adaptation perspective

Reality shock typically occurs during which stage in the adjustment of a newcomer to an organization?

encounter

The primary purpose of socialization is the:

transmission of core values to new organization members

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