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New Immigrants

A new wave of immigrants, from eastern and southern Europe, frightened Americans because of the emigrant's customs, different faiths, illiteracy, and poverty.They were a new group of immigrants coming into the United States that consisted of Italians, Slavs, Greeks, Jews, and Armenians. They came from both Southern and Eastern Europe, and also from the Middle East. In the 1890s, their numbers first began to increase, and the numbers continued to increase for the next three decades. Most of the immigrants came from peasant and poor backgrounds and boosted America's foreign-born population by 18 million. They were often discriminated against.

African American Migration to Cities

1880s and 1890s, thousands of rural African Americans seeking better economic situations moved to cities

Hispanic Migration to Cities

West, many Hispanics also moved from rural to urban areas, many became ranchers or farmers

Immigrant Cultures

Immigrants' cultures helped sustain them in their new home, and Old World institutions also helped them adapt.

Ethnic and Racial Borderlands

Immigrants in large cities lived in multi-ethnic neighborhoods.

Ghettos

By the early twentieth century, institutionalized racism forced African Americans to live in highly segregated ghettos.

Barrios

In southwestern and western cities Mexicans found themselves confined in barrios, mexican ghettos

Americanization

Immigrants adapted their old world cultures to the realities of life in America.

Accommodation of Religion

The influx of immigrants from 1870 to 1920 changed the United States from a mostly Protestant nation into one of Protestants, Catholics, and Jews. Many Catholics and Jews supported liberalizing trends within their religions to accommodate their faiths to their new American environment.

Know-Nothing Party

the new immigrants in the U.S. began to pose a threat to the "natives" because of their unknown languages and cultures. Some feared that the foreigners would outnumber them and eventually overrun the country. This hostility rekindled the spirit of European religious wars, resulting in clashes between the Protestants and Catholics. Some nativities formed this party in New York called the "Order of the Star Spangled Banner". The members refused to indentify themselves and would say they know nothing. They were an anti-Catholic group, until it subsided and slavery became the focal issue. Immigrants were helping to form the U.S. into one of the most ethnically and racially diverse societies in the history of the world.

Old Immigration

This Term applies to those migrating from Western and Eastern Europe. They were the largest group of immigrants that migrated to the United States. The largest group of approximately three million, came from Germany in the 1840s and 1850s. Next came the British, Scottish, and Welsh immigrants, which totaled 2 million. In addition, one and a half million traveled over from Ireland. All of these immigrants came over in search of jobs and of new economic opportunities.

Literacy tests 1917

Passed by Congress in 1917in order to restrict immigration, the law enlarged the group of immigrants that could be excluded from the United States. Literacy tests were imposed on all immigrants, and any immigrant who could not pass the tests was not allowed entry into the U.S.

Chinese Exclusion Law, 1882

Passed by Congress, it was one of three laws that attempted to solve the increasing immigration problem. There had also been increasing labor violence against the Chinese. By this law, immigrants had to be examined, and all convicts, polygamists, prostitutes, anarchists, persons suffering from loathsome or contagious diseases, and persons liable to become public disturbances and problems were all excluded form the U.S.

Gentleman's Agreement 1907

In the 1890's, workers feared their jobs would be taken by the Japanese immigrants and they wanted a law preventing any more immigrants to move to the United States. In 1907 Japan proposed the Gentlemen's Agreement which promised that they would halt the unrestricted immigration if President Roosevelt promised to discourage any laws being made that would restrict Japanese immigration to the US.

Mexican migration to the U.S

In the period from 1877 to 1910 economic conditions were worsening in Mexico. By 1914 more than 100,000 Mexicans had migrated to the United States. These new immigrants found mainly in railroad industries and agriculture where jobs were vacated by the war. They filled partly the US need for labor during war.

Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives

A journalist, photographer, and reformer, Jacob August Riis publicized the plight of immigrants in New York City slum tenements. His photographs, articles, and books focused on the squalid living conditions of the city's poor and spurred legislation to improve those conditions.

Immigration act of 1921

restricted the number of immigrants by their country of origin. Only 3% of the number of persons from that
nation living in the U.S., according to the 1910 census, were allowed to immigrate

Immigration act of 1924

restricted the number of immigrants by their country of origin. Only 2% of the number of persons from that
nation living in the U.S. were allowed to immigrate

immigration act or 1927

gongress set limit for 150 k immigrants per year from most western and northern europe, mostly no asians

national origins system of 1929

no more than 150 k from outside western hemisphere, no restrictions in western hemisphere, no asians

refugee and displaced persons acts

provisions to allow refugees from nazi germany and later eastern europe

gentrification

race and class divisions, the restoration of run-down urban areas by the middle class (resulting in the displacement of lower-income people)

dillingham report

The Dillingham Commision was a congregational committee formed in 1907 to study the origins and consequences of the recent immigration to the United states. In 1911, they published a 41-volume report analyzing immigrant occupations, living conditions and more. Their final conclusion was that immigrants from southern and eastern Europe were threatening American society and should be restricted in the future.

padrones

Padrones were labor agents who greeted immigrants and often exploited them.
Italian immigrants were particularly likely to take heavy construction jobs. About half of all late 19th century Italian immigrants were manual laborers, compared to a third of their Irish and a seventh of their German counterparts. Contracted out by a professional labor broker known as a padrone, Italians dug tunnels, laid railroad tracks, constructed bridges and roads, and erected the first skyscrapers.

restricted covenant

agreements among homeowners not to sell realestate to certain groups of people, racist

angel island

This was the Ellis Island of the West which was located in San Fransisco Bay and opened in 1910.

ethnic enclaves

Neighborhoods in which the majority of people are of the same ethnicity. Examples include Little Italy, Little Hungary, and Chinatown.

zenophobia

fear of strangers or foreigners

nativism

a policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones

immigrant travel

most travelled in steerage, underneath the boats, and contributed to less than satisfactory health conditions and sometimes rejection into country at inspection sites

birds of passage

person who made money in the united states and sent it home, either hoping to return home after making a fortune or send home enough money to have family immigrate over

Jewish Immigrants

Russian jew fleeing progroms and religious persecution

Irish Immigrants

fleeing potato famine and also looking for economic oppurtunity, catholics, settled in ghettos and also migrated west

Italian Immigrants

push: escape poverty, rising populations, war, oppression
pull: wanted American dream, employment opportunities

Chinese Immigrants

california/ west coast settlement, mined gold, railroad (central pacific), food/ laundry industry, sent money home, lower class, most women were prostitutes, mostly men immigrating, useful immigrants allowed entry after exclusion act. push factors: opium wars, boxer rebellion

Pragmatism

Endorsed by William James, this movement endorsing a hands on approach and practical applications helped in aiding immigrants.

Ellis Island

Created by the Bureau of Immigration in 1892, this was an immigrant reception center off of the New Jersey coast a mile south of Manhattan and next to the statue of liberty in New York.

2nd Morrill Act (1890)

This act provided federal grants to colleges to teach agricultural and mechanical arts to help in Americanizing immigrants.

Sacco and Venzetti

Arrested in May of 1920 for stealing money and murdering two people, these two were convicted despite spotty and uncompelling evidence. They demonstrate the unequal treatment immigrants often received and were executed in 1927.

Institutional church

Churches that were used for more than just a place to worship. Though many fell under the spell of social Darwinism, many helped respond to immigrant needs.

German Immigrants

jewish germans, push: freedom or religion, economic
pull: Germans lived in America, open land, encouragement from ads

general push/pull for immigration

push: economic reasons, rising populations, industrial revolution, local craftsmen competition, political and religious persecution.
pull: "Magic Land" idea of America, encouragement from companies, religious freedom, and better conditions.

Statue of Liberty

give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, ... i lift my lamp beside the golden door

transient immigrants

immigrants who planned to stay for a short period of time

green card

long term visa, need valid reason to obtain one

marshall law

military rule

political asylum

haven to refugees

McCarran-Walter Act 1952

156k outside west hemisphere, 2k from far east, screening for communists

Immigration act 1965

ended quota system, 170 k outside west hem., 120 k in west hem, preference for special talents and relatives

Japanese immigrants

farmers, not wealthy

Webb alien land law

1913 California law that prohibited Japanese who were not American citizens from owning farmland in California. This law demonstrates the nativist sentiment found in much of American society in the first decades of the twentieth century.

biases

japan had heirarchy over china, irish and english and all predominantly white imms had heirarchy over mexican/ chinese,

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