Balances of power
Third Estate (bourgeoisie) was upset because they were the only Estate paying taxes when they had the least amount of money.
Congress of Vienna
After Napolean, diplomats met to figure out how to restore order. Goal was to create a lassting peace by establishing balance of power.
Goals of Prince Metternich
Restore France to the way it was before the French Revolution - Including the three estates.
Legislative body consisting of representatives of the three estates. Called to order after 175 years in order to make reforms.
Called the Estates-General in which the three estates listed their grievances.
Left France in debt with spending on lavish things
Military 'hero' who became a dictator. Spread nationalism, encouraged growth of industry, roads, canals, public schooling, price controls. Followed Enlightenment principles.
'Old order' - Everyone in France was divided into three social classes, or estates.
rigid class system
First, Second, Third Estate. First Estate = clergy. Second = Nobility. Third = Most diverse social class, including bourgeoisie.
Led the Reign of Terror, a time in France in which people that were suspected to have resisted the Revolution were killed, usually by use of the guillotine.
people from rich and powerful families
tennis court oath
Declaration mainly by members of the Third Estate not to disband until they had drafted a constitution for France (June 20, 1789).
Medieval fortress that was converted to a prison stormed by peasants for ammunition during the early stages of the French Revolution.
list of grievances drawn up by delegates going to the meeting of the estates general
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789. (p. 585)
a political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to the king, in exchange for thier loyalty, military service and protection of of the people who live on the land
a severe shortage of food (as through crop failure) resulting in violent hunger and starvation and death
right to vote
love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it
person who wants change
popular vote, French supported Napoleon
to give up a position, right, or power
spending more than is being taken in
king of France (921-954)
Nobles, clergy, and others who had fled France and its revolutionary forces
liberty, equality, Fraternity
slogan of the french revolution that inspired nationalist feelings and the goal of the revolution
decleration of the rights of man
natural rights, religion, speech, property
Women's March on Versailles
Thousands of women stormed Versailles and demanded the king and his family go back to Paris, which they unhappily did. In Paris, they remained prisoners for the next couple of years
queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband (1755-1793)
the meeting of party delegates every four years to choose a presidential ticket and write the party's platform.
The new government set up by the revolutionary leaders in France.
constitution of 1791
It established a limited monarchy w/a clear separation of powers. There was a unicameral legislature elected by indirect voting. Every adult male w/minimal taxpaying requirements could vote, w/a higher qualification needed to serve public office.
committee of public safety
The leaders under Robespierre who organized the defenses of France, conducted foreign policy, and centralized authority during the period 1792-1795.
reign of terror
This was the period in France where Robespierre ruled and used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front. He tried rebels and they were all judged severely and most were executed
an execution device that drops a sharp heavy blade onto the victim's neck; thought to be more humane; "national razor"
(French) a sudden, powerful political stroke, esp. the forcible overthrow of government.
a direct vote of all the people of a country or district on an important matter; a referendum
new code of laws had some principles such as equality religous toleration and abolition of feudalism
Form of government which followed the directory -established by Napoleon-ended when Napoleon was crowned emperor.
military strategy in which an army does not engage the enemy head on
to step down from power
restoring hereditary monarchies that the French Revolution had unseated
burning grain fields and slaughtering livestock so as to leave nothing that the enemy could eat. Used by Alexander in Russia against Napoleon
something (such as money) given or received as payment or reparation (as for a service or loss or injury)
Austrian minister, believed in the policies of legitimacy and intervention (the military to crush revolts against legitimacy). Leader of the Congress of Vienna
sought to eliminate any constitutional or nationalist sentiments that had arisen during the Napoleonic period through espionage, censorship, and repression
4 phases of revolution
moderate replace monarchy with republic, Radical eliminate monarchist, directory get rid of Robespierre, age of napolean back to monarch
go back to the old ways wanted to restore royal families to the thrones they had lost when Napolean swept across Europe
Those who favor extreme change responded forcefully to the King's challenge
being within reasonable or average limits
wanted goverments to be based on written constitutions and seperation of powers