French Revolution, Napolean,Congress of Vienna

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Balances of power

Third Estate (bourgeoisie) was upset because they were the only Estate paying taxes when they had the least amount of money.

Congress of Vienna

After Napolean, diplomats met to figure out how to restore order. Goal was to create a lassting peace by establishing balance of power.

Goals of Prince Metternich

Restore France to the way it was before the French Revolution - Including the three estates.

Estates-General

Legislative body consisting of representatives of the three estates. Called to order after 175 years in order to make reforms.

Louis XVI

Called the Estates-General in which the three estates listed their grievances.

Louis XVI

Left France in debt with spending on lavish things

Napolean

Military 'hero' who became a dictator. Spread nationalism, encouraged growth of industry, roads, canals, public schooling, price controls. Followed Enlightenment principles.

Old Regime

'Old order' - Everyone in France was divided into three social classes, or estates.

rigid class system

First, Second, Third Estate. First Estate = clergy. Second = Nobility. Third = Most diverse social class, including bourgeoisie.

Robespierre

Led the Reign of Terror, a time in France in which people that were suspected to have resisted the Revolution were killed, usually by use of the guillotine.

bourgeoisie

middle class

clergy

church officials

nobles

people from rich and powerful families

estates

social classes

tennis court oath

Declaration mainly by members of the Third Estate not to disband until they had drafted a constitution for France (June 20, 1789).

bastille

Medieval fortress that was converted to a prison stormed by peasants for ammunition during the early stages of the French Revolution.

cahiers

list of grievances drawn up by delegates going to the meeting of the estates general

national assembly

French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789. (p. 585)

revolution

change

feudalism

a political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to the king, in exchange for thier loyalty, military service and protection of of the people who live on the land

famine

a severe shortage of food (as through crop failure) resulting in violent hunger and starvation and death

suffrage

right to vote

nationalism

love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it

radical

person who wants change

plebiscite

popular vote, French supported Napoleon

abdicate

to give up a position, right, or power

deficit spending

spending more than is being taken in

Louis IV

king of France (921-954)

emigre

Nobles, clergy, and others who had fled France and its revolutionary forces

liberty, equality, Fraternity

slogan of the french revolution that inspired nationalist feelings and the goal of the revolution

decleration of the rights of man

natural rights, religion, speech, property

Women's March on Versailles

Thousands of women stormed Versailles and demanded the king and his family go back to Paris, which they unhappily did. In Paris, they remained prisoners for the next couple of years

Marie Antoinette

queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband (1755-1793)

national convention

the meeting of party delegates every four years to choose a presidential ticket and write the party's platform.

directory

The new government set up by the revolutionary leaders in France.

constitution of 1791

It established a limited monarchy w/a clear separation of powers. There was a unicameral legislature elected by indirect voting. Every adult male w/minimal taxpaying requirements could vote, w/a higher qualification needed to serve public office.

committee of public safety

The leaders under Robespierre who organized the defenses of France, conducted foreign policy, and centralized authority during the period 1792-1795.

reign of terror

This was the period in France where Robespierre ruled and used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front. He tried rebels and they were all judged severely and most were executed

guilotine

an execution device that drops a sharp heavy blade onto the victim's neck; thought to be more humane; "national razor"

coup d'etat

(French) a sudden, powerful political stroke, esp. the forcible overthrow of government.

plebiscite

a direct vote of all the people of a country or district on an important matter; a referendum

napoleaonic code

new code of laws had some principles such as equality religous toleration and abolition of feudalism

consulate

Form of government which followed the directory -established by Napoleon-ended when Napoleon was crowned emperor.

guerilla warfare

military strategy in which an army does not engage the enemy head on

abdicate

to step down from power

legitimacy

restoring hereditary monarchies that the French Revolution had unseated

scorched earth

burning grain fields and slaughtering livestock so as to leave nothing that the enemy could eat. Used by Alexander in Russia against Napoleon

compensation

something (such as money) given or received as payment or reparation (as for a service or loss or injury)

prince metternich

Austrian minister, believed in the policies of legitimacy and intervention (the military to crush revolts against legitimacy). Leader of the Congress of Vienna

Metternich system

sought to eliminate any constitutional or nationalist sentiments that had arisen during the Napoleonic period through espionage, censorship, and repression

4 phases of revolution

moderate replace monarchy with republic, Radical eliminate monarchist, directory get rid of Robespierre, age of napolean back to monarch

Conservative

go back to the old ways wanted to restore royal families to the thrones they had lost when Napolean swept across Europe

radical

Those who favor extreme change responded forcefully to the King's challenge

Moderate

being within reasonable or average limits

Liberalism

wanted goverments to be based on written constitutions and seperation of powers

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