emergent properties of water
cohesion, moderation of temperature, expansion upon freezing, solvent
hydrogen bonds of water hold the substance together. contributes to the transport of water and dissolved nutrients up against gravity in plants.
the clinging of one cell to another that plays a role in countering the downward pull of gravity
the measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surace of a liquid
moderation of temperature
water can absorb or release a large amount of heat with only a slight change in its own temperature
energy of motion
measure of the total amount of kinetic energy due to molecular motion in a body of matter
measures the intensity of that heat due to the average kinetic energy of the molecules. THIS is higher in a swimmer crossing the english channel than in the water, but the water contains much more total heat because of its volume
amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1C
amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a kg of water by 1C
the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 g of that substance to change its temperature by 1C.
specific heat of water. so high because heat must be absorbed to break hydrogen bonds, and is released when hydrogen bonds form. a calorie of heat causes only a small change in the temp of water because much of the heat is used to disrupt hydrogen bonds before the wter molecules themselves can start moving faster and increasing the overall temperature. stabilizes the temperatures of coastal regions and that of the ocean.
heat of vaporization
quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for 1 g of it to evaporate. helps moderate earth's climate
the surface of the liquid cools down as the liquid evaporates because only the hottest molecules leave the liquid. how sweat works.
expansion upon freezing
water is one of the few substances that is less dense as a solid than as a liquid, because as the water cools its hydrogen bonds stop freaking out and eventually hold themselves stable, locked to four partners.
liquid that is a mixture of two or more substances
substance that is dissolved
solution in which water is the solvent
sphere of water molecules around each dissolved ion. i.e., if NaCl is placed in water, the negatively-charged oxygens in the water are attracted to the sodium cations, while the positively-charged hydrogens cling to the chloride anions.
any substance that has an affinity for water is THIS
a stable suspension of fine particles in a liquid. occurs when a hydrophilic substance does not actually dissolve
any substance that does not have an affinity for water is THIS
sum of the masses of all the atoms in a molecule.
6.06 * 10^23 (avogadro's number) objects
number of moles of solute per liter of solution
single proton with a charge of 1+. binds to another water molecule, making that molecule a hydronium ion (H3O+)
water molecule that has lost a hydrogen ion and has a charge of 1-
a substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution. when hydrochloric acid is added to water, hydrogen ions dissociate from chloride ions: HCl --> H+ + CL-. This additional source of H+ results in the solution having more H+ than OH-
substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution. Some reduce the hydrogen ion concentration by accepting hydrogen ions, like ammonia, while others dissociate to form hydroxie ions, which then combine with hydrogen ions in the solution to form water
the pH of a solution is the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration: pH=-log[H+]. a solution of pH 10 has a hydrogen ion concentration of 10^-10 and a hydroxide concentration of 10^-4
substances taht minimize changes in the concentrations of H+ and OH- in a solution. works by accepting hydrogen ions from the solution when they are in excess and donating hydrogen ions when they have been depleted.
precipitation (including fog) with a pH lower than pH 5.6. caused by the presence of sulfur oxides in the atmosphere