Chapter 9 psychology

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Learning principles and application

observational learning

The type of modeling that occurs when a person watches someone perform a task and is later able to complete the same task known as____

discrimination

A child is saying "Daddy" only to his father is an example of...

increases

A partial schedule of reinforcement ____ the likelihood that the desired responses will be more stable and long-lasting.

behavioral contract

After a behavioral problem is identified, a ____ is set up to identify a reinforcer that is dependent upon the completion of a less desirable, but necessary, task.

operant conditioning

In the study of ____ researchers seek to discover how voluntary behaviors are affected by their consequences.

Token economy

Receiving points that can be cashed in for prizes is an example of a ____ system of learning.

escape conditioning conditioning

A child cries uncontrollably when the lights are turned out. The parent begins to leave the light on until the child has fallen asleep. This is an example of ____.

generalization

A dog who assists a hearing-impaired person is trained to react to the telephone ringing. If the dog also reacts to a tone from the person's microwave, the dog is exhibiting___.

Learned helplessness

Individuals who believe that no matter what they do their actions make no difference are exhibiting ...

generalization

A subject responding to a second stimulus similar to the original CS is an example of ...

fixed-interval

On a ___ schedule, reinforcement is available at predetermined times.

disinhibition

A type of modeling, ___, occurs when a person sees someone else get away with an aggressive act without any apparent consequences and later performs the same act.

shaping

The reinforcement process used to train an animal to do something it has never done before and would never do on its own is known as ____.

Punishment

An unpleasant consequence that decreases the frequency of the response that produced it is called ....

self-control

A ___ program emphasizes people taking responsibility for setting up personal systems of rewards and punishments to shape their own thoughts and actions.

John Watson

The psychologist ___ demonstrated conditioning on a human infant.

computer-assisted instructions

With ___ material is broken down into simple units and the student is given positive reinforcement.

operant

B.F. Skinner is the psychologist most closely associated with ____ conditioning.

observational

An individual watches a friend send an E-mail message. When the individual is later able to send an E-mail message, the type of learning exhibited is ....

unconditioned response

In classical conditioning, the best results occur when the conditioned stimulus is presented....

response chain

Previously learned responses are put together in a ____.

aversive

Using ___ stimuli to change behavior may result in unwanted side effects such as rage or aggression.

an automatic response

In classical conditioning, the unconditioned stimulus elicits ....

secondary reinforcer

In human society, money serves asa a ....

Edward Tolman

The psychologist ____ reasoned that learning involved mental processes, as well as mechanical processes.

partial schedule

In order for the responses to be long-lasting once they been learned, a ___- of reinforcement is better.

Spontaneous recovery

After extinction occurs, ___, may occur, will not return the conditioned response back to its original strength.

Classical

Principles of ___ conditioning are very useful in helping people overcome fears.

response patterns

To play basketball, several response chains are organized into...

decreases

in negative reinforcement, the removal of unpleasant consequences ____ the frequency of a behavior that preceded removal.

Martin Seligman

The psychologist ___ identified that stability, globally, and internality are the important elements of learned helplessness.

operant conditioning

Learning from the consequences of behavior is called...

variable-ratio

On a ___ schedule, reinforcement occurs after a random number of responses.

learning

Relatively permanent changes in behavior that result from experience are known as ____.

fixed-ratio

On a ___ schedule, reinforcement occurs after a specified quantity of responses.

behavior modification

the mental processes involved in learning-

avoidance conditioning

conditioning that results when a person's old response becomes attached to a new stimulus-

generalization

when an organism responds to a new stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus-

shaping

an event that leads to a certain, predictable response

unconditioned response

conditioning that results from unpleasant consequences

positive reinforcement

the process of reinforcement used to sculpt new responses from old ones

escape conditioning

learning from the consequence of behavior

fixed-ratio schedule

rewarding consequences that follow a behavior

variable-ratio schedule

conditioning in which a person's behavior prevents an unpleasant situation from occurring

cognitive learning

conditioning that causes an unpleasant event to stop

unconditioned stimulus

the number of responses needed for reinforcement changes

fixed-interval schedule

reinforcement that depends on a specified quantity of responses

cognitive map

learning resulting from observation and imitation

conditioned response

a learned response

classical conditioning

a mental picture learned from repeated experience and exploration

aversive control

systematic application of learning principles to change people's actions and feelings

conditioned stimulus

an event that, after training, leads to a learned response

extinction

the conditioned response lessens in strength when the unconditioned response lessens in strength when the unconditioned stimulus stops being presented.

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