Federal Government - Test 4

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In April 2010, the Gulf Coast of the United States experienced a tremendous disruption to its ecosystem when an offshore drilling well leased by the oil company ________________ exploded.

British Petroleum

Domestic policy includes all of the following issues EXCEPT

the implications of war.

The intentional course of action followed by government in dealing with problems or matter of concern is called

public policy

According to ______ theory, the chosen few make all the important decisions in society.

elite

According to the interest group theory of public policy making,

government can become an equilibrium point among competing interests.

Correct order of components of the policy making process:

Agenda setting, policy adoption, budgeting, policy evaluation

A set of problems to which policy makers believe they should be attentive is called

an agenda.

A list of all issues that the political community views as meriting pubic attention is called the

systemic agenda.

The changing list of issues that officials believe they should address is called the

governmental agenda.

When President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave his fireside chats, he was engaging in which step of the policy-making process?

agenda setting

The crafting of appropriate and acceptable proposed courses of actions to ameliorate or resolve public problems is called

policy formulation

Addressing a current problem by drawing on previous experiences with similar problems in the past is known as

analogous formulation

Policy adoption

give policies legal force.

_______ are the largest source of policy decisions made by the federal government.

Federal rules

Legislation that contains ambiguous language

allows for discretion on the part of those implementing the law.

If you donate money to the Sierra Club, your contribution is tax-deductible. This tactic used by government to encourage the public to support environmental policies is a/an ______ technique.

incentive

Providing people with information, training, or resources that will enable them to undertake desired activities is an example of a _______ technique

capacity

In the 1980s, the Centers for Disease Control used a "Don't Be a Butthead" campaign to discourage youth smoking. The implementation technique used here is ________.

horatory

When did federal involvement in health care policy first begin?

1789

An American who is over the age of 65 would rely on which part of Medicare for hospitalization coverage?

Medicare Part A

The largest national health insurance program in the United States is

Medicaid

Social Security was created in the

1930s

National health insurance

initially was considered at the same time as Social Security.

The U.S. Constitution MOST likely did not put the responsibility of education on the federal government because

individual colonies had already developed their own education systems that met local needs.

John Dewey

promoted experiential learning over the more traditional methods.

The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that separate educational facilities for black and white students were inherently unequal in the landmark case of

Brown v. Board of Education.

Milton Friedman's arguments about education and other public policies are _______ in nature.

capitalist

Economist Milton Friedman advocated for

the privatization of primary and secondary education.

No Child Left Behind

I. was supported by Senator Edward M. Kennedy (D-MA).
II. employs high standards and measurable goals to evaluate American education.
III. was signed into law by President George W. Bush

The set of educational reforms signed into law in 2002 is the ____________ Act.

No Child Left Behind

Certificates issued by the government that may be applied toward the costs of attending public or private schools are ______.

Vouchers

Imagine you are an avid opponent of school vouchers. Which of the following is likely going to be an argument you would use?

Why is it fair to deprive failing schools of the money they need to make improvements?

In the 1970s, the price of oil skyrocketed in the United States because

III. the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries raised the price for oil worldwide.
IV. the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries instituted an embargo of oil shipments to any nation that supported Israel during its war.

Corporate Average Fuel Efficiency standards

allowed car companies to sell gas-guzzling cars as long as they also sold energy efficient vehicles.

Because energy and environmental policies are so critical to the nation, a Cabinet-level department called the ____________ was established.

Department of Energy

The decade deemed "the environmental decade" occurred during the

1970s

One of the most significant pieces of environmental legislation up to that point in American history was the ______ Act, passed in 1970.

Clean Air

Which of the following was NOT a piece of environmental legislation passed in the 1970s?

Nature Conservation Act

Which of the following is MOST likely the primary reason that President Ronald Reagan sought to undo legislative actions that protected the environment?

He did not believe the federal government should play a role in protecting the environment.

Which of the following presidents was the MOST active in regulating the environment?

Richard M. Nixon

The highest percentage of imported oil in the United States comes from

Africa

According to the text, why is the future of Social Security in jeopardy?

I. People are living longer.
III. Baby boomers are retiring en masse.
IV. The cost of living is increasing, and the Social Security Trust Fund is not growing at the same rate.

Why are some provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) so controversial?

I. Teachers are saying they are forced to "teach to the test."
II. Other areas, such as civics, art, and music, are not required by the act.
III. Critical thinking, socialization, and analysis, all critical components of education, are not measured by NCLB-approved tests.
IV. State and local governments are given less leeway in addressing specific local needs.

With regard to the No Child Left Behind Act, President Barack Obama

appears to be opposed to some of its provisions.

Which of the following consumes the MOST energy in the United States?

Coal-burning plants power cities and towns.

Mandates that certain amounts of electricity must come from alternative sources are known as

Renewable Portfolio Standards.

The health care system in America

I. is a problem exacerbated by citizens significantly unhealthier than many people in other developed nations.
III. dwarfs other developed nations in terms of costs.

North Carolina is spending most of their higher education federal stimulus dollars on

offsetting deep budget deficits.

The largest percentage of health care expenditures in the United States goes to

hospital care.

Which of the following social policies is the most costly to the government?

Social Security

Congress passed the Troubled Asset Relief Program (your textbook is incorrect when it says "Temporary" instead of "Troubled") to speed recovery from the poor economic conditions in the United States resulting from

the sub-prime mortgage crisis in the 2000's

The _________________ Act of 2009 was designed to create jobs and cut taxes through deficit spending.

American Recovery and Reinvestment

Which of the following would be the most likely to occur in a mixed free-enterprise system?

A bidding war between two cable companies to offer the lowest price

During our nation's first century, most private economic regulation was done by the

states

The doctrine of ________ opposes government involvement in the economy.

laissez-faire

The first major government effort to regulate business occurred following

the growth of railroads.

Which of the following is MOST relevant to the growing concern over the prevalence of media conglomerates?

The Sherman Anti-Trust Act

In 1890, Congress passed the ________, a law designed to prohibit onopolies.

Sherman Anti-Trust Act

In 1887, Congress adopted the Interstate Commerce Act, which was designed to

regulate railroads.

Congress passed the Federal Reserve Act in 1913 to

regulate the national banking system and provide flexibility to the money supply.

The first major effort by the national government to protect consumers involved

meatpacking.

When President George W. Bush signed the Economic Stimulus Act of 2008, he was practicing the doctrine of

interventionism.

The program instituted by President Franklin D. Roosevelt to overcome the Great Depression was the

New Deal

The rights of labor to organize and bargain collectively come from the

Wagner Act

The Fair Labor Standard Act of 1938 established

a federal minimum wage

During the New Deal, Congress established or enacted all of the following EXCEPT the

Shipping Standards Act

________ established the legitimacy and viability of national governmental intervention in the economy.

The New Deal

Which of the following was NOT a factor that contributed to the surge of social regulation in the late 1960s and early 1970s?

Business became much greedier, thus prompting a backlash

Before ____________________ a person in a small town would have had a better chance of living close to a commercial airport.

deregulation

Which of the following organizations would be most supportive of an expansion of free trade?

General Moters

Many people believe that it is necessary to set up ____________ to protect the U.S. from overseas competition.

a protectionist system

Workers earned their highest minimum wage during the _________ administration

Gerald Ford

China's emergence as a major economic power has created all of the following EXCEPT

an increasingly capitalist society

___________________ is one of the two policy areas in which the government spends most of its money.

Purchasing military weaponry

If the president wanted to decrease defense spending and increase monetary aid to victims of natural disaster, which one of the following groups would be MOST likely to balance the new distribution of spending?

The Office of Management and Budget

Which of the following are likely reasons for the government to be running a deficit?

I. Military invasions
III. Economic recession
IV.Tax cuts

All of the following are reforms encouraged by Federal Reserve Board Chairman Ben Bernanke EXCEPT

the creation of one national bank to limit bank failures

All of the following scenarios would be affected by income security EXCEPT

a college student's decision to take summer classes and not take a job.

Which of the following are components of the Social Security Act of 1935?

I. Old-age insurance
II. Unemployment insurance

All of the following are examples of entitlement programs EXCEPT

public housing

How many Americans benefit from Social Security (OASDI)?

Between 50 and 55 million

The current debate over raising the retirement age affects which of the following programs?

II. Social Security

The costs of Social Security

are expected to exceed revenues around 2015 or shortly thereafter.

Unemployment insurance payments

vary dramatically by state

The unemployment rate in 2010 was

around 10 percent

Which of the following is/are true about Supplemental Security Income?

III. Coverage includes needy people who are permanently disabled.
IV. Beneficiaries can only have limited income.

. Which of the following states had an unemployment rate greater than 10 percent in 2010?

Tennessee

What do the Great Society, the New Deal, and the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 have in common?

They all indicate major shifts in social policy.

All of the following are features of TANF EXCEPT

single, pregnant women must work through the ninth month of pregnancy.

The Earned Income Tax Credit and Supplementary Security Income have what in common?

Benefits are only distributed to those who earn less than a pre-determined income amount.

The initial purpose of the food stamp program was to

expand domestic markets for farm commodities

Which of the following can be purchased using food stamps in Alaska?

III. Herb seeds
IV. Candy

All of the following indicate that 2008 marked the beginning of a period of economic instability in the U.S. economy EXCEPT

high voter turnout

The $700 billion bailout

failed to pass Congress the first time, but succeeded the second.

One justification given for economic stimulus payments to Americans in 2008 was that the government has a responsibility to prevent economic downturns. This is an example of the philosophy of _________________.

interventionism

Which of the following are arguments against economic stimulus payments?`

I. Deficit spending has serious future ramifications.
III. Government cannot control how stimulus payments are used.

____________________ is a similar action to deficit spending.

using a credit card

Which of the following policy areas appeared to be given the most priority in allocating funds for the Recovery Act?

Tax cuts

Which of the following is NOT a method used by the Republican Party to fix the economic downturn in early 2008?

Implementing a Keynesian deficit spending approach

Conservative scholars credit the _______ for creating the economic growth that stalled a rise in unemployment in 2010.

TARP program

What was the focus of President Obama's 2009 Nobel Peace Prize acceptance speech?

"Just" war

The historic roots of American foreign and defense policy were formed in the period

leading up to World War II.

The Barbary Wars were fought against

North African States

The Embargo Act was designed to

halt the British practice of impressment.

The ________ Act prevented U.S. ships from leaving U.S. ports for foreign ports without the approval of the federal government.

Embargo

Both the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812 were fought between the U.S. and

Great Britain

The president's 1823 pledge that the United States would oppose any attempt by European states to extend political control in the Western Hemisphere was called the

Monroe Doctrine

According to the theory of ________, the U.S. was divinely ordained to expand across North America to the Pacific Ocean.

Manifest Destiny

The basis for the United States' intervention in the Caribbean and Latin America was the

Roosevelt Corollary

The United States entered World War I due to

the German policy of unrestricted submarine warfare.

After World War I, President Woodrow Wilson put great faith in a concept called

collective security

Why was the period of American history after World War I similar to that of the early 19th century?

Many Americans supported isolationist policies.

The United Nations, created at the end of World War II, had its roots in the _______________ Conference.

Yalta

Why did the United States and the Soviet Union become enemies during the Cold War?

A Communist government in the Soviet Union

The international financial system devised shortly before the end of World War II that created the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund is known as

the Bretton Woods System

The World Trade Organization evolved from the

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.

________ said, "I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures."

President Harry S Truman

In 1947, the American government decided to help rebuild the economies of war-torn Europe by sending large amounts of aid through a program known as the

Marshall Plan

Which president initially engaged in a relaxation of tensions with the Soviet Union in the late 1960s?

Richard M. Nixon

The reduction of tensions and increased contact between the United States and the Soviet Union beginning in the late 1960s was called

détente.

President Jimmy Carter actively pursued policies favoring

human rights

The policy that the United States would provide military assistance to anti-communist groups fighting against pro-Soviet governments was called the

Reagan Doctrine

In 1991, the U.S. military attacked

Iraq

The power to formulate foreign policy belongs to

the national government

A fundamental weakness of the Articles of Confederation was that it

did not create an adequate national defense

According to tradition, the __________ is the chief executive branch department responsible for the formulation and implementation of U.S. foreign policy.

Department of State

The ____________ was created after September 11, 2001terrorist attacks to combat terrorism at home and abroad

Department of Homeland Security

Congress exerts control on foreign policy through all of the following EXCEPT

approving all military deployments

U.S. defense spending was highest during

World War II

When might the United States be most likely to engage in protectionism?

During a period of economic recession

The Secure Fence Act called for the creation of

a double-reinforced wall along the section of the U.S.-Mexican border where illegal drug trafficking and immigration are most common.

The Bush Administration began the Merida Initiative to

fund Mexican and Central American countries' fights against drug cartels.

Currently, most observers believe that al Qaeda is

a series of concentric circles, with al-Qaeda Central in the innermost circle.

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