World History

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Paleolithic Age

second part of the Stone Age beginning about 750,00 to 500,000 years BC and lasting until the end of the last ice age about 8,500 years BC

Neolithic Age

latest part of the Stone Age beginning about 10,000 BC in the Middle East

Culture

the act of developing the intellectual and moral faculties especially by education

Homo sapiens

the species of bipedal primates to which modern humans belong, characterized by a brain capacity averaging 1400 cc (85 cubic in.) and by dependence upon language and the creation and utilization of complex tools.

Artifact

any object made by human beings, esp. with a view to subsequent use. a handmade object, as a tool, or the remains of one, as a shard of pottery, characteristic of an earlier time or cultural stage.

Mary Leaky

February 6, 1913 - December 9, 1996 was a British archaeologist and anthropologist, who discovered the first skull of a fossil ape on Rusinga Island

Cro-Magnons

an Upper Paleolithic population of humans, regarded as the prototype of modern Homo sapiens in Europe. Skeletal remains found in an Aurignacian cave in southern France indicate that the Cro-Magnon had long heads, broad faces, and sunken eyes, and reached a height of approximately 5 ft. 9 in.

Ice Age

1870-75 Also called glacial period, ice age. the geologically recent Pleistocene Epoch, during which much of the Northern Hemisphere was covered by great ice sheets.

"Lucy "

is the common name of AL 288-1, the nearly 40% complete skeleton of an Australopithecus afarensis specimen discovered in 1974 at Hadar in the Awash Valley of Ethiopia's Afar Depression. Lucy is estimated to have lived 3.2 million years ago

Technology

the branch of knowledge that deals with the creation and use of technical means and their interrelation with life, society, and the environment, drawing upon such subjects as industrial arts, engineering, applied science, and pure science.

HOMO erectus

an extinct species of the human lineage, formerly known as Pithecanthropus erectus, having upright stature and a well-evolved postcranial skeleton, but with a smallish brain, low forehead, and protruding face.

Agriculture Revolution

Gradual transformation of the traditional agricultural system that began in Britain in the 18th century. Aspects of this complex transformation, which was not completed until the 19th century, included the reallocation of land ownership to make farms more compact and an increased investment in technical improvements, such as new machinery, better drainage, scientific methods of breeding, and experimentation with new crops and systems of crop rotation.

Prehistoric

of or pertaining to the time or a period prior to recorded history

Domestication

To convert/ and or to tame (an animal), esp. by generations of breeding, to live in close association with human beings as a pet or work animal and usually creating a dependency so that the animal loses its ability to live in the wild.

Nomad

a member of a people or tribe that has no permanent abode but moves about from place to place, usually seasonally and often following a traditional route or circuit according to the state of the pasturage or food supply.

Irrigation

the artificial application of water to land to assist in the production of crops.

Egyptians

of or pertaining to Egypt or its people. A native or inhabitant of Egypt.

Mesopotamians

People of an ancient region in W Asia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers: now part of Iraq.

Indus Valley Civilization

an ancient civilization that flourished in the Indus River valley, from about 2500 to 1500 b.c.: extensive archaeological excavations at the main sites of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa in Pakistan.

Nile

a river in East Africa, the longest in the world, flowing N from Lake Victoria to the Mediterranean. 3473 mi. (5592 km) long; from the headwaters of the Kagera River, 4000 mi. (6440 km) long.

Pyramids

a quadrilateral masonry mass having smooth, steeply sloping sides meeting at an apex, used as a tomb,platform for a temple .

Indo- European

a large, widespread family of languages, the surviving branches of which include Italic, Slavic, Baltic, Hellenic, Celtic, Germanic, and Indo-Iranian, spoken by about half the world's population: English, Spanish, German, Latin, Greek, Russian, Albanian, Lithuanian, Armenian, Persian, Hindi, and Hittite are all Indo-European languages.

Buddhism

a religion, originated in India by Buddha (Gautama) and later spreading to China, Burma, Japan, Tibet, and parts of southeast Asia, holding that life is full of suffering caused by desire and that the way to end this suffering is through enlightenment that enables one to halt the endless sequence of births and deaths to which one is otherwise subject.

Hittites

a member of an ancient people who established a powerful empire in Asia Minor and Syria, dominant from about 1900 to 1200 b.c.

Aryans

a member or descendant of the prehistoric people who spoke Indo-European. of or pertaining to an Aryan or the Aryans.

Hinduism

the common religion of India, based upon the religion of the original Aryan settlers as expounded and evolved in the Vedas, the Upanishads, the Bhagavad-Gita, etc., having an extremely diversified character with many schools of philosophy and theology, many popular cults, and a large pantheon symbolizing the many attributes of a single god. Buddhism and Jainism are outside the Hindu tradition but are regarded as related religions.

Caste System

a social structure in which classes are determined by heredity

Judaism

the monotheistic religion of the Jews, having its ethical, ceremonial, and legal foundation in the precepts of the Old Testament and in the teachings and commentaries of the rabbis as found chiefly in the Talmud.

Covenant

an agreement, usually formal, between two or more persons to do or not do something specified.

Rabbi

the chief religious official of a synagogue, trained usually in a theological seminary and duly ordained, who delivers the sermon at a religious service and performs ritualistic, pastoral, educational, and other functions in and related to his or her capacity as a spiritual leader of Judaism and the Jewish community.

Torah

the Pentateuch, being the first of the three Jewish divisions of the Old Testament. a parchment scroll on which the Pentateuch is written, used in synagogue services.

Ten Commandments

The ten injunctions given by God to Moses on Mount Sinai, serving as the basis of Mosaic Law.

Assyrians

of or pertaining to Assyria, its inhabitants, or their language.

Phoenicians

a native or inhabitant of Phoenicia.

Babylonians

of or pertaining to Babylon or Babylonia.

Reincarnation

the belief that the soul, upon death of the body, comes back to earth in another body or form.1855-60

Pictograph

a pictorial sign or symbol. a record consisting of pictorial symbols, as a prehistoric cave drawing or a graph or chart with symbolic figures representing a certain number of people, cars, factories, etc.

Phonetic Symbol

a written character used in phonetic transcription of represent a particular speech sound

Greece

Ancient Greek, Hellas. Modern Greek, Ellas. a republic in S Europe at the S end of the Balkan Peninsula. 10,583,126; 50,147 sq. mi. (129,880 sq. km). Capital: Athens.

Geography of Greece

About 80% of Greece is mountainous or hilly. Much of the country is dry and rocky; only 28% of the land is arable. Greece has mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers.

Aegean Sea

an arm of the Mediterranean Sea between Greece and Turkey.

Minoan

of or pertaining to the ancient civilization of the island of Crete, dating from about 3000 to 1100 b.c.

Knossos

a ruined city on N central Crete; capital of the ancient Minoan civilization.

Trojan War

a ten-year war waged by the confederated Greeks under Agamemnon against the Trojans to avenge the abduction of Helen, wife of Menelaus, by Paris, son of the Trojan king Priam, and ending in the plundering and burning of Troy.

Homer

9th-century b.c., Greek epic poet: reputed author of the Iliad and Odyssey.

Odyssey

an epic poem attributed to Homer, describing Odysseus's adventures in his ten-year attempt to return home to Ithaca after the Trojan War.

Iliad

a Greek epic poem describing the siege of Troy, ascribed to Homer.

Athens

Greek, Athenai. a city in and the capital of Greece, in the SE part. 885,136.

Sparta

an ancient city in S Greece: the capital of Laconia and the chief city of the Peloponnesus, at one time the dominant city of Greece: famous for strict discipline and training of soldiers.

Troy

also Il·i·on (ĭl'ē-ən, -ŏn') or Il·i·um (-ē-əm) An ancient city of northwest Asia Minor near the Dardanelles. Originally a Phrygian city dating from the Bronze Age.

Monarchy

a state or nation in which the supreme power is actually or nominally lodged in a monarch

Oligarchy

a form of government in which all power is vested in a few persons or in a dominant class or clique; government by the few.

Aristocracy

a government or state ruled by an aristocracy, elite, or privileged upper class.

Direct Democracy

a form of democracy in which the people as a whole make direct decisions, rather than have those decisions made for them by elected representatives

Divine Right

the doctrine that the right of rule derives directly from God, not from the consent of the people

Republic

a state in which the supreme power rests in the body of citizens entitled to vote and is exercised by representatives chosen directly or indirectly by them.

Mycenaean

1. of or pertaining to the ancient city of Mycenae. 2. denoting or pertaining to the ancient civilization at Mycenae, dating from c2000 to c1100 b.c.

Dorian

a member of a people who entered Greece about the 12th century b.c., conquered the Peloponnesus, and destroyed the Mycenaean culture: one of the four main divisions of the prehistoric Greeks.

Macedonians

an extinct language of ancient Macedonia, an Indo-European language of uncertain relationship within the Indo-European language family.

Pericles

c495-429 b.c., Athenian statesman.

Socrates

Greek philosopher whose indefatigable search for ethical knowledge challenged conventional mores and led to his trial and execution on charges of impiety and corrupting the youth. Although Socrates wrote nothing, his method of question and answer is captured in the dialogues of Plato, his greatest pupil.

Aristotle

Greek philosopher. A pupil of Plato, the tutor of Alexander the Great, and the author of works on logic, metaphysics, ethics, natural sciences, politics, and poetics, he profoundly influenced Western thought. In his philosophical system, which led him to criticize what he saw as Plato's metaphysical excesses, theory follows empirical observation and logic, based on the syllogism, is the essential method of rational inquiry.

Alexander the great

A ruler of Greece in the fourth century b.c. As a general, he conquered most of the ancient world, extending the civilization of Greece east to India. Alexander is said to have wept because there were no worlds left to conquer. In Alexander's youth, the philosopher Aristotle was his tutor.

Darius 3

Died 330 B.C. King of Persia (336-330) who was defeated in several battles by Alexander the Great. His murder by a Bactrian satrap effectively ended the Persian Empire.

Hellenistic Civilization

represents the zenith of Greek influence in the ancient world from 323 BC to about 146 BC

Hellenistic Sculpture

is the art of the Hellenistic period and dating from 323 BCE to 146 BCE. A number of the best-known works of Greek sculpture belong to this period, Laocoön and his Sons, Venus de Milo, and the Winged Victory of Samothrace.

Classical Sculpture

efers to the forms of sculpture from Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome and the Hellenized, and Romanized civilizations under their rule or influence from about 500B.C. to fall of Rome in AD 476

Trojan War

a ten-year war waged by the confederated Greeks under Agamemnon against the Trojans to avenge the abduction of Helen, wife of Menelaus, by Paris, son of the Trojan king Priam, and ending in the plundering and burning of Troy.

Punic War

one of the three wars between Carthage and Rome that resulted in the destruction of Carthage and its annexation by Rome; 264-241 BC, 218-201 BC, 149-146 BC

Carthage

An ancient city and state of northern Africa on the Bay of Tunis northeast of modern Tunis. It was founded by the Phoenicians in the ninth century B.C. and became the center of Carthaginian power in the Mediterranean after the sixth century B.C. The city was destroyed by the Romans at the end of the Third Punic War (146 B.C.) but was rebuilt by Julius Caesar and later (A.D. 439-533) served as capital of the Vandals before its virtual annihilation by the Arabs (698).

Mediterranean Sea

An inland sea surrounded by Europe, Asia, Asia Minor, the Near East, and Africa. It connects with the Atlantic Ocean through the Strait of Gibraltar; with the Black Sea through the Dardanelles, the Sea of Marmara, and the Bosporus; and with the Red Sea through the Suez Cana

Hannibal

Carthaginian general who crossed the Alps in 218 with about 35,000 men and routed Roman armies at Lake Trasimeno (217) and Cannae (216). He was later defeated at the Battle of Zama (202).

Alps

A mountain system of south-central Europe, about 805 km (500 mi) long and 161 km (100 mi) wide, curving in an arc from the Riviera on the Mediterranean Sea through northern Italy and southeast France, Switzerland, southern Germany, and Austria and into the northwest part of the Balkan Peninsula. The highest peak is Mont Blanc, 4,810.2 m (15,771 ft), on the French-Italian border.

Pyrenees

A mountain range of southwest Europe extending along the French-Spanish border from the Bay of Biscay to the Mediterranean Sea. Pico de Aneto, its highest point, rises to 3,406.2 m (11,168 ft).

Triumvirate

the office or magistracy of a triumvir.

Julius Caesar

Roman general, statesman, and historian who invaded Britain (55), crushed the army of his political enemy Pompey (48), pursued other enemies to Egypt, where he installed Cleopatra as queen (47), returned to Rome, and was given a mandate by the people to rule as dictator for life (45).

Crassus

Roman politician and general who joined Julius Caesar and Pompey in the first triumvirate to challenge the senate's power (60). Hungry for military glory, he invaded Parthia and was killed in battle.

Pompey

Roman general and political leader. With Caesar and Crassus he formed a ruling triumvirate (60-50) but was later defeated by Caesar and murdered in Egypt.

Rome

The capital and largest city of Italy, in the west-central part of the country on the Tiber River. Traditionally founded by Romulus in 753 B.C., it was ruled first by Etruscans, who were overthrown c. 500 B.C

Gaul

An ancient region of western Europe south and west of the Rhine River, west of the Alps, and north of the Pyrenees, corresponding roughly to modern-day France and Belgium. The Romans extended the designation to include northern Italy, particularly after Julius Caesar's conquest of the area in the Gallic Wars (58-51 B.C.).

Etruscan

1706, from L. Etruscus "an Etruscan," from Etruria, ancient name of Tuscany, of uncertain origin.

Pax Romana

Latin for "the Roman peace"; the peace enforced by ancient Rome within the boundaries of its empire.

Jewish Diaspora

dates back to the second century BCE and was comparatively large. Several synagogues and catacombs are known. After the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE, the community remained at some distance from the new, rabbinical Judaism of Judaeae, maintaining several archaic traits.

Reasons for the decline of the roman Empire

After the Pax Romana, the Roman Empire started to decline. The reasons were political and economic, and they had problems with foreigners. After the guard killed Commudus, they sold power to the highest bidder. This led to chaos every time a leader died. All leaders became dictators, and almost all were killed by their guards. The Roman Empire had 26 leaders in the next 50 years.

Reasons for the dividing of the Roman Empire

Diocltian became emperor of rome in 284 he soon realized that the roman empire had grown too large for one man to govern effectively. Diocletians solution was to split the roman empire in half and have it ruled by two emperors he kept the eastern half due to its greater wealth and trade.

Augustus

First emperor of Rome (27 BC-AD 14) and grandnephew of Julius Caesar. Born Gaius Octavius, he took the name Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus—often referred to simply as Octavian in English texts—in 44 after Caesar's assassination. He defeated Mark Antony and Cleopatra in 31 and subsequently gained control over the empire. In 27 he was named emperor and given the honorary title Augustus.

Crusades

A series of wars fought from the late eleventh through the thirteenth centuries, in which European kings and warriors set out to gain control of the lands in which Jesus lived, known as the Holy Land. At that time, these areas were held by Muslims. The Crusaders conquered Jerusalem in 1099 but failed to secure the Holy Land, and they were driven out by the late thirteenth century. Nevertheless, the Crusades had several lasting results, including the exposure of Europeans to the goods, technology, and customs of Asia.

Byzantium

An ancient city of Thrace on the site of present-day Istanbul, Turkey. It was founded by the Greeks in the seventh century B.C. and taken by the Romans in A.D. 196. Constantine I ordered the rebuilding of the city in 330 and renamed it Constantinople.

Jerusalem

A holy city for Jews, Christians, and Muslims; the capital of the ancient kingdom of Judah and of the modern state of Israel. The name means "city of peace." Jerusalem is often called Zion; Mount Zion is the hill on which the fortress of the city was built.

Saladin

Sultan of Egypt and Syria who captured (1187) Jerusalem and defended it during the Third Crusade (1189-1192).

Middle Ages

The period in European history between antiquity and the Renaissance, often dated from A.D. 476 to 1453.

The Field System

The study of field systems (collections of fields) in landscape history is concerned with the size, shape and orientation a number of fields. These are often adjacent, but may be separated by a later feature.

Magna Carta

A list of rights and privileges that King John of England signed under pressure from English noblemen in 1215. It established the principles that the king could not levy taxes without consent of his legislature, or parliament, and that no free man in England could be deprived of liberty or property except through a trial or other legal process.

Great Schism

a period of division in the Roman Catholic Church, 1378-1417, over papal succession, during which there were two, or sometimes three, claimants to the papal office.

Serfs

a person in a condition of servitude, required to render services to a lord, commonly attached to the lord's land and transferred with it from one owner to another.

Vassal

a person granted the use of land, in return for rendering homage, fealty, and usually military service or its equivalent to a lord or other superior; feudal tenant.

Fief

a fee or feud held of a feudal lord; a tenure of land subject to feudal obligations.

Monks

Men under religious vows who live in a community and whose work is usually centered on their community, which is called a monastery. Buddhism and Christianity have notable groups of monks. In Christianity, the monks are members of religious orders.

Hundred years' war

A war between France and England that lasted from the middle of the fourteenth century to the middle of the fifteenth. The kings of England invaded France, trying to claim the throne. Toward the end of the war, Joan of Arc helped rally the French, who finally drove out the English.

Renaissance

The cultural rebirth that occurred in Europe from roughly the fourteenth through the middle of the seventeenth centuries, based on the rediscovery of the literature of Greece and Rome. During the Renaissance, America was discovered, and the Reformation began; modern times are often considered to have begun with the Renaissance. Major figures of the Renaissance include Galileo, William Shakespeare, Leonardo da Vinci, and Michelangelo. Renaissance means "rebirth" or "reawakening."

Joan Of Arc

A French military leader of the fifteenth century, a national heroine who at the age of seventeen took up arms to establish the rightful king on the French throne. She claimed to have heard God speak to her in voices. These claims eventually led to her trial for heresy and her execution by burning at the stake. Joan of Arc is a saint of the Roman Catholic Church.

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