intro to personality- brandy

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Intrapersonal processes include

the emotions that we experience.

________ theories of personality apply the insights and methods derived from the study of perception, memory, and thought to the study of personality.

Learning and cognitive

Personality psychology and clinical psychology overlap most often when approaching

personality disorders

Which of the following is not part of the psychological triad?

psychological health

Personality psychology emphasizes how people are ________, whereas subfields such as cognitive and social psychology emphasize how people are ________.

different from each other; similar to each other

The task of an employer who attempts to identify dependable, conscientious, and hard-working job applicants is similar to the task of the ________ psychologist, who attempts to identify and assess individual differences.

trait

The personality paradigm that focuses on rewards and punishments is known as the ________ paradigm.

behaviorist

Psychologists following the phenomenological approach

are concerned with our conscious experience of the world and the consequences of having free will.

In observing human behavior, it is impossible

to understand everything about a person all at once.

What two topics are covered under the phenomenological approach

humanistic and cross-cultural perspectives on personality

The trait approach, the behaviorist approach, and the psychoanalytic approach

address different sets of questions about human psychology.

The purpose of a basic approach (or paradigm) is

to limit inquiry to certain kinds of observations and patterns.

Personality psychologists who adhere to the ________ approach focus on identifying, conceptualizing, and measuring the ways in which people differ psychologically from one another.

trait

Advocates of any particular basic approach to personality historically

proudly asserted that they have deliberately limited what they have chosen to look at

Personality psychology has a variety of theoretical perspectives that are sometimes seen as competing with each other. Regarding this diversity, a major theme of this textbook is:

great strengths are usually great weaknesses.

In the Funder and Ozer reader, McAdams calls Level III evaluation

the level of identity as a life story.

Personality psychology shares with clinical psychology

a common obligation to try to understand the whole person.

Jeff suspects that his roommate's sexist jokes may indicate that his roommate has some hidden, unconscious hostility toward women or that he feels very insecure around women. Jeff's analysis suggests a ________ approach to personality.

psychoanalytic

Personality psychologists adhering to the ________ approach focus on psychic energy, the workings of the unconscious mind, and the nature and resolution of internal mental conflict.

psychoanalytic

Which of the following is NOT one of the basic approaches to personality?

assessment

The unique mandate of personality psychologists is to attempt

to explain whole, functioning persons in their social context.

In the Funder and Ozer reader, McAdams calls dispositional traits

superficial, reductionistic labels.

Psychologists typically can predict L data quite easily.

false

The fact that much of modern empirical research in psychology has been based on white, middle-class college sophomores may reduce the ________ of psychological research.

generalizability

The technical meaning of reliability concerns

how much measurement error is present in your assessment instrument.

While completing the NEO Personality Inventory, you answer True to the item "I consider myself a nervous person." Your response to this item would be an example of ________ data.

S

Psychologists who try to predict age at first marriage from personality information typically have limited success.

True

Biases in judgment essentially occur at random.

False

A personality description of a client by her or his therapist is an example of ________ data.

I

According to the text, accidental mistakes in judging personality are considered ________, whereas inaccurate judgments that are motivated by prejudices are considered ________.

errors, Biases

One concern with items on measures like the MMPI is that they often lack face validity. What kind of problem does this create?

Responses to such items are difficult to interpret.

A behavioroid measure is a combination of which two types of data?

S and B

Many research projects involve data that are blends of the S, I, B, and L types.

True

Applied psychologists involved in personnel selection are less concerned with error variance than research psychologists.

False

Imagine that you could draw a straight horizontal line through the points on a scatter plot depicting the relation between X and Y. Which of the following is the closest value to the correlation coefficient that you would compute from these data?

0

The most important advantage of B data is that they are based on

direct observations of behavior, so they are more objective and quantifiable.

A method or instrument that provides the same information repeatedly is

reliable

According to the text, real science is the cataloging of facts already known with certainty.

False

Validity is much easier judge than reliability.

False

The judgments that others make of your personality affect your opportunities and expectancies. Thus, these judgments have

casual force

Which of the following is NOT an advantage of B data?

Direct observations require little in the way of psychological interpretation.

In simple language, questions about reliability concern ________, whereas questions about validity concern ________.

consistency; accuracy

A researcher wants to evaluate the correlation between extraversion and happiness. What is the null hypothesis in this analysis?

Extraversion is uncorrelated with happiness.

Many researchers study the behavior of college students and then assume that what they learn applies to people in general. This practice may place limits on

the generalizability of their findings over participants.

Because each kind of data has limitations, personality psychologists should

gather as much data as possible.

Assume that you are studying 200 participants, all of whom are sick. An experimental drug is given to 100 of them; the other 100 are given nothing. If the correlation between taking the drug and living is ?.26, then ________ percent of those who got the drug would still be alive at the end of the study.

63

According to the textbook, there are no perfect ________ of personality, only _______.

indicators; clues

Which of the following psychologists is often credited with starting the person-situation debate?

Walter Mischel

In his book Personality and Assessment, Mischel argued that

behavior is too inconsistent to predict using broad personality traits.

Which of the following is NOT part of the situationist argument?

Persons and situations interact to predict behavior.

Which of the following behaviors would be the easiest to predict accurately?

David will generally be on time for work next week

In real life, personality traits and situational features are uncorrelated.

False

The trait of neuroticism is associated with unhappiness.

True

A social psychologist who focuses on statistical significance is concerned with ________, whereas a personality researcher who focuses on effect sizes is concerned with ________.

documenting the existence of an effect; quantifying the size of an effect

Happiness is associated with what trait?

extroversion

One result of the person-situation debate was that many social psychologists concluded that personality did not really exist.

true

If there is a positive correlation between extraversion and risk taking, then the

higher a person's extraversion score, the more risks he or she is likely to take.

One response to Mischel's critique asserts that a fair review of the research on the predictability of behavior from personality traits indicates that

the predictability of behavior from personality traits is better than is sometimes acknowledged.

Individuals high in the trait of extraversion tend to die younger than individuals who are lower in extraversion.

false

Which of the following would be an example of using a moderator variable approach to improve the predictability of behavior from personality?

determining if the behavior of high self-monitors is less consistent than that of low self-monitors

In his book Personality and Assessment, Mischel argued that behavior can be most accurately predicted from

situations

Interactionism is the view that traits and situations work with each other to produce behavior.

true

The avoidance of drug abuse is associated with what trait?

conscientiousness

Measurements of weight are made on what kind of scale?

a ratio scale

Traditionally, the usual practice in evaluating the degree to which behavior is affected by the situation has been to

determine the percentage of variance accounted for by personality, subtract that from 100 percent, and then assign the remaining percentage of the variance, by default, to the situation.

Historically, personality psychologists have concentrated on ________ to evaluate the effects of personality variables, whereas social psychologists have concentrated on ________ to evaluate the effects of situational variables.

effect size; statistical significance

The trait approach is based on empirical research

that is mostly correlational in nature.

A variable that influences the association between two other variables is called a(n)________ variable.

moderator

Personality trait measurements are typically made on what kind of scale?

an ordinal scale

Henry Murray wrote the book Personality and Assessment.

false

Situationists are often concerned with precisely calculating how much situations affect behavior.

false

One kind of improvement to personality research offered in response to the situationist critique suggests identifying those individuals whose behavior is more consistent than others' behavior. This research improvement involves

using a moderator variable approach.

Which of the following is a limitation of projective tests?

Projective tests are relatively inefficient and expensive to administer.

The basis of the ________ method of test construction is to come up with items that seem directly, obviously, and logically related to what it is you wish to measure.

rational

The factor analytic technique of test construction is designed to

identify groups of test items that seem to be alike.

What is the name of the newer shorter version of the TAT?

Picture Story Exercise

Recent research using the Implicit Associations Test (IAT) to study shyness indicates that

"controlled" aspects of shyness can be predicted using S data, but uncontrolled or spontaneous aspects can be more accurately predicted using B data from instruments such as the IAT.

A strong handshake is a reliable indicator of honesty.

false

Which of the following approaches to test construction is the most atheoretical?

empirical

In a study of social expectancies, Snyder, Tanke, and Berscheid (1977) found that if male participants were shown a photograph of an attractive woman and told they would be interacting with her by telephone, the female participant they actually spoke with

was rated by other people as behaving in a warm, humorous, and friendly manner.

Research on intellectual and social expectancies demonstrates that

other people's perceptions of your personality can influence who you are and what you do.

Eliminating the use of personality tests in employment screening will

not prevent traits from being judged but will change the ways they are judged.

Data supporting the validity of projective tests is widespread.

False

If you were shown an inkblot and asked to describe what you saw, you would be taking the

Rorschach test.

What is the primary criterion for item selection in the empirical method of test construction?

whether or not the item discriminates between two known groups

In making an overall judgment of your personality, which person should be most accurate?

life long best friend

The Woodworth Personality Data Sheet was designed to measure psychiatric problems in what group?

Us Army recruits

The observation, "If it looks like a duck, walks like a duck, and quacks like a duck, then it is probably a duck," illustrates the method of

convergent validation.

At least 80 percent of clinical psychologists reported using Rorschach inkblots at least occasionally.

true

According to the text, which of the following is NOT one of the conditions that must hold for an S-data personality test to work?

The test must contain both positively and negatively worded items.

When evaluated as psychometric instruments, most projective tests

do not fare very well.

The reason that objective tests include so many items is to increase the ________ of the test.

reliability

Researchers know a great deal about the characteristics of good judges of personality.

False

The improvement in reliability gained by adding additional "good" test items can be precisely calculated using what formula?

the Spearman-Brown

What term refers to personality inventories that are designed to measure a wide range of traits?

omnibus inventories

To evaluate accuracy in personality judgments, researchers often want to know if personality judgments have predictive validity.

true

The most important advantage of Q-sorting is that it

forces the judge to compare all the items directly against each other.

The most important thing to notice about a table of Q-sort correlates is the

general patterns that emerge.

Negative emotionality in Tellegen's three-factor model is closest to which trait in Eysenck's model?

neuroticism

Which of the Big Five traits appears to have the most inconsistency in terms of cross-cultural replication?

openness

Sammy is concerned about whether or not relatively extraverted adolescents become relatively extraverted adults. Sammy studies what kind of personality stability?

rank order

The Q-sort is the only way to get reliable S data using the many trait approach.

false

Research on authoritarianism helps explain the behavior of the people in Germany in the 1930s.

false

A researcher using the Big Five likely adopts the many-trait approach.

false

Hospitalized mental patients tend to get low scores on the self-monitoring scale.

True

Which trait seems to show the strongest and most noticeable mean-level increase from adolescence to adulthood?

conscientiousness

What does the "F" in the California F scale stand for?

fascism

The Big Six model is also called the HEXACO.

true

What are the Big Three traits according to Hans Eysenck?

neuroticism/extraversion/psychoticism

A researcher taking the many-trait approach to understanding personality would likely use which of the following measurement instruments?

California Q-Set

Sally is a strong proponent of the lexical hypothesis. Where would she likely begin her search for the essential traits of personality?

the dictionary

Findings from a meta-analysis of mean levels of personality traits suggest that most personality changes occur during adolescence.

False

Jack Block found that 23-year-olds who described themselves as being politically conservative were likely to have been described as _________ at age three.

easily victimized and rigid

A researcher starts with an interest in delinquency and then identifies the traits associated with that category of behavior. What approach is she taking?

a many-trait approach

Which correlates of delay of gratification were common in both girls and boys?

being planful, reflective, and reasonable

According to the text, the two larger purposes for measuring traits are to

predict and understand behavior.

People high in conscientiousness seem to avoid behaviors that involve health risks.

true

Positive emotionality in Tellegen's three-factor model is closest to which trait in Eysenck's model?

extraversion

The meta-analysis of mean-level changes in personality across the life span suggests which of the following?

Most mean-level changes in personality occur in young adulthood.

Given Snyder's description of self-monitoring, you would expect someone who is a low in self-monitor to be ________ than a high self-monitor.

easier to judge

Which of the following is NOT a positive correlate of authoritarianism?

preference for weak political candidates

Epinephrine is only found throughout the brain and central nervous system.

fase

Which brain structure is primarily associated with memory processing?

the amygdala

High levels of cortisol appear to be associated with ________, and low levels of cortisol appear to be associated with ________.

stress, anxiety, and depression; impulsivity and sensation-seeking

In one study, male U.S. military veterans were asked about their past behaviors. Those with higher testosterone levels more often reported

having assaulted others.

Which of the following chemicals breaks down certain neurotransmitters?

monoamine oxidase

According to Eysenck, differences between introverts and extraverts are attributable to the functioning of the

ascending reticular activating system (ARAS).

The case of railroad worker Phineas Gage illustrated that

injuries to the brain can affect personality and behavior.

One reason why the results of psychosurgeries are erratic is that

brain systems might be more important for functioning than discrete areas.

Damasio's patient named Elliott had brain damage to the same region that was injured in Phineas Gage.

true

In 1966, Charles Whitman killed his wife, his mother, and 14 more people at the University of Texas before he was killed by police. An autopsy revealed a tumor affecting Whitman's

amygdala

One problem researchers experience when attempting to directly link testosterone to aggression and sexuality is that

it is difficult to determine the causal direction because aggression and sex can affect testosterone levels.

What term describes the junction between two neurons?

synapse

Some research suggests that the relationship between testosterone and physical aggression holds only or most strongly for

relatively uneducated men from low economic classes.

Norepinephrine is both a neurotransmitter in the brain and a hormone in the body.

true

Which of these brain structures is thought to play a role in judging whether stimuli offer threats or rewards?

amygdala

Nerve fibers that connect nerves to each other are calledes

interneurons.

The hormone oxytocin promotes antisocial behavior.

false

Capgras syndrome arises from damage to the

right frontal lobe

The Navy improved the pass rate for pool competency in SEAL candidates by

teaching methods to control panic.

Which brain region secretes several hormones and is located just above the roof of the mouth?

hypothalamus

What brain region appears to be important for the abilities to plan ahead, anticipate consequences, and to engage in moral reasoning?

frontal lobes

Chemicals that communicate between neurons are called

neurotransmitters.

The biggest bundle of interneurons in the body is the brain.

true

What neurotransmitter is NOT typically associated with the substantia nigra?

oxytocin

Based on the information in The Brain DVD, what should you do to calm panic?

Breathe deeply, focusing on long exhalation

If there is no phenotypic variation in a trait, then the heritability of that trait will be approximately

0

The incidence of schizophrenia was measured in both MZ and DZ twins. The correlation between MZ twins was .50 and the correlation between the DZ twins was .30. What is the heritability coefficient for schizophrenia?

.40

According to a recent study about types of depression, the kind of depression that follows a social loss is characterized by

emotional pain, crying, and seeking social support.

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