The orderly, durable changes in learners resulting from a combination of experience, learning, and maturation.
changes in the body
changes in personality (psychology)
changes in the way a person interacts with other people
changes in the way a person thinks.
changes which are genetically programmed—such as most forms of physical development and a lot of cognitive development.
time spans that are optimal for the development of certain capacities in the brain.
cells that transmit and store information.
the part of the neuron that allows communication between neurons.
the coating on the neuron fibers. When the brain goes through a process of myelination, that coating gets thicker and the information goes through better, as a result.
the specialization of the two sides of the brain. Yet, both sides have to work together in complex tasks.
Principles of development
Development is continuous, orderly, and gradual. Different people develop at different rates.
the brain of a young child is adaptable. If damage occurs to one area, other areas of the brain may be able to compensate.
the beginning of sexual maturity.
the advances people make in their ability to interact and get along with others.
Cognitive. What you think about yourself. An appraisal of one's own physical, social, and academic competence.
Self-esteem (or self-worth)
Emotional. How you feel about yourself. An emotional reaction to or an evaluation of the self.
Assimilation (in relation to culture)
fully adopting the values and behaviors of the majority culture and rejecting one's own culture
Separated (in relation to culture)
associating only with members of one's own culture
living in the majority but feeling alienated and uncomfortable in it and disconnected from the minority culture as well.
maintaining ties to two cultures.
A positive self-concept about one's racial or ethnic heritage.
the growth of enduring personality traits that influence the way individuals interact with their physical and social environments.
Bioecological theory of development
Bronfenbrenner's theory describing the nested social and cultural contexts that shape development. Every person develops wihtin a microsystem, inside a mesosystem, embedded in an exosystem, all of which are a part of the macrosystem of the culture.
uses authority negatively (excessively controlling)
uses authority positively (facilitates child's growth). Control depends on needs of child (some children need more structure & others need less)
Behaviorism theory of language development
the behavior of using language and language approximations (babbling) is rewarded.
Social Cognitive Theory of language development
parents model language and children learn from watching and listening to their parents.
Nativist Theory of language development
we are genetically programmed to learn and use language. Exposure to language triggers this development.
Sociocultural Theory of language development
(Vygotsky) parents scaffold their children's use of language.
Piaget's theory of language development
Negative feedback creates disequilibrium and the processes of adaptation: accommodation and assimilation.
Overgeneralization in language
occurs when a child uses a word to refer to a broader class of objects than is appropriate (e.g., using doggie to refer to all four-legged animals).
Undergeneralization in language
occurs when a child uses a word too narrowly such as "kitty" for a specific cat but not for cats in general.
word order (grammar).
the rules for when and how to use language to be an effective communicator in a particular culture.
Turn-taking in conversation
not monopolizing the conversation—being able to listen and respond appropriately to another person using language.
understanding about one's own use of language.