Management and Organizational Behavior Final Exam 2012

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Planning

decide on organizational goals and allocate and use resources to achieve those goals

organizing

establish the rules and reporting relationships that allow people to achieve organizational goals

controlling

evaluate how well the organization is achieving goals and take action to maintain, improve, and correct performance

leading

encourage and coordinate individuals and groups so that they work toward organizational goals

manager

someone who coordinates and oversees the work of ither people so that organizational goals can be accomplished

efficiency

doing things right or getting the most output from the least amount of inputs

effectiveness

doing the right things or completing activities so that organizational goals are attained

Henry Mintzberg

"A theorist who argued that a manager in a firm needs to carry out certain roles. He identified three min roles and these are interpersonal roles, information roles and decision-making roles."

interpersonal roles

Figurehead, Leader, Liaison

informational roles

Monitor, disseminator, spokesperson

decisional roles

Entrepreneur, Disturbance handler, Resource allocator, Negotiator

technical skills

Skills that involve the ability to perform tasks in a specific discipline or department.

human skills

the ability to work well with other people

conceptual skills

skills that involve the ability to picture the organization as a whole and the relationship among its various parts

Robert L. Katz

Katz has proposed that managers must possess and use 4 critical management skills:
1) Conceptual Skills
2) Interpersonal Skills
3) Technical skills
4) Political Skills

Frederick Winslow Taylor

American mechanical engineer, who wanted to improve industrial efficiency. He is known as the father of scientific management, and was one of the first management consultants

taylor's scientific management principles

1. Develop a science for each element of an individual's work, which will replace the old rule-of-thumb method.
2. Scientifically select and then train, teach, and develop the worker.
3. Heartily cooperate with the workers so as to ensure that all work is done in accordance with the principles of the science that has been developed.
4. Divide work and responsibility almost equally between management and workers. Management takes over all work for which it is better fitted than the workers.

Max Weber

A sociologist who emphasized the phenomenon of bureaucracy in explaining political developments

halo effect

To generalize and perceive that a persona has a whole set of characteristics when your have actually observed only one characteristic, trait or behavior

culture

all the knowledge and values shared by a society

six sigma

A process for reducing costs, improving quality, and increasing customer satisfaction

motivation

a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior

regional trading alliances

agreements among groups of partner countries to facilitate inter-partner trade- increase market size, reduce trade barriers (EU, NAFTA, ASEAN)

European Union

an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members

NAFTA

North American Free Trade Agreement; allows open trade with US, Mexico, and Canada

ASEAN

an association of nations dedicated to economic and political cooperation in southeastern Asia and who joined with the United States to fight against global terrorism

strategic alliance

a cooperative agreement between business firms to use the other's already established distribution channel

locus of control

the degree to which people believe they control their own fate

decision

a choice among two or more alternatives

problem

an obstacle that makes it difficult to achieve a desired goal or purpose

Programmed decision

repetitive decisions that can be handled by a routine approach and are used when the problem being resolved is straightforward, familiar, and easily defined

Nonprogrammed decision

Unique decisions that require a custom made solution and are used when the problems are new or unstructured

decision making process

•Step 1 - Identify and define the Problem
•Step 2 - Generate and Evaluate alternative course of action
•Step 3 - Decide on a preferred course of action
•Step 4 - Implement the decision
•Step 5 - Evaluate the results

certainty

a situation in which a manager can make accurate decisions because all outcomes are known

risk

a situation in which a manager can estimate the likelihood of certain outcomes

uncertainty

a situation in which a manager is not certain about the outcomes

goals

desired outcomes

plans

documents that outline how goals are going to be met

why do managers plan?

1. Provides direction 2. reduces uncertainty 3. minimizes waste and redundancy 4. establishes the goals or standards used in controlling

stated goals

official statements of what an organization says, and wants its stakeholders to believe, its goals are

real goals

Goals that an organization actually pursues, as defined by the actions of its members.

strategic plans

the action steps by which an organization intends to attain strategic goals

management by objectives

A process in which objectives set by a subordinate and a supervisor must be reached within a given time period

strategic management

A process that involves managers from all parts of the organization in the formulation and implementation of strategic goals and strategies.

strategic management process

- study the internal and external environments.
- identify marketplace opportunities and threats.
- determine how to use core competencies.
- use strategic intent to leverage resources, capabilities and core competencies and win competitive battles.
- integrate formulation in implementation of strategies.
- seek feedback to improve strategies.

swot analysis

strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats

corporate strategy

a plan that indicates in which industries and national markets an organization intends to compete.

growth strategy

a strategy that focuses on increasing profits, revenues, market share, or the number of places in which the company does business

BCG matrix

analyzes business opportunities according to market growth rate and market share

stars

high market share, high growth rate

question marks

low market share, high growth rate

cash cows

high market rate, low growth rate

dogs

low market share, low growth rate

competitive strategy

an organizational strategy for how an organization will compete in its business(es)

strategic business unit

a subgroup of a single business or collection of related businesses within the larger organization

five forces model

Buyer Power, Supplier Power, Threat of substitute products or services, threat of new entrants, rivalry among existing competitors

human resource management

the process of finding, developing, and keeping the right people to form a qualified work force

toxic act

Tracks industrial chemicals produced and imported into US

organizational design

The process of deciding on the type of structure appropriate for an organization, particularly regarding its division of labor, departmentalization, span of control, delegation of authority, and coordinating mechanism

work specialization

the degree to which organizational tasks are subdivided into individual jobs; also called division of labor

departmentalization

the dividing of organizational functions into separate units

types of departmentalization

functional, geographical, product, process, and customer

chain of command

the line of authority that moves from the top of a hierarchy to the lowest level

span of control

number of people supervised by one manager

decentralization

Degree to which decision-making authority is given to lower levels in an organization's hierarchy.

centralization

Degree to which decision-making authority is restricted to higher levels of management in an organization.

formalization

the act of making formal (as by stating formal rules governing classes of expressions)

mechanistic organization

An organizational design that's rigid and tightly controlled

organic organization

An organizational design that's highly adaptive and flexible

flextime

a schedule that allows workers to choose work hours that fit their particular needs

stages of group development

1. Forming
2. Storming
3. Norming
4. Performing
5. Adjourning

forming

The initial stage of group development during which people come to feel valued and accepted so that they identify with the group

storming

The stage of group development characterized by conflict and power plays as members seek to have their ideas accepted and to find their place within the group's power structure.

norming

the third stage of team development, in which team members begin to settle into their roles, group cohesion grows, and positive team norms develop

performing

the fourth and final stage of team development, in which performance improves because the team has matured into an effective, fully functioning team

adjourning

The stage of group development in which members assign meaning to what they have done and determine how to end or maintain interpersonal relations they have developed

job characteristics model

an approach to job redesign that seeks to formulate jobs in ways that motivate workers and lead to positive work outcomes

hierachy of needs

Maslow's pyramid of human needs, begining at the base with physiological needs that must be satisfied before higherlevel safety needs and then psychological needs become active.

mcgregor's theory x and y

This theory states that "X" people are lazy, don't want to work, and need to be micromanaged. "Y" people are self-led, motivated, and strive to accomplish.

herzberg's two factor theory

A theory that relates intrinsic factors to job satisfaction and associates extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction. Also called motivation-hygiene theory.

hygiene factors

factors that involve the presence or absence of job dissatisfiers, including working conditions, pay, company policies, and interpersonal relationships

motivators

in Herzberg's theory of motivating factors, job factors that cause employees to be productive and that give them satisfaction

three needs theory

Theory stating that people are motivated by needs for achievement, affiliation, and power

goal setting theory

A theory that says that specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance

reinforcement theory

theory that positive and negative reinforcers motivate a person to behave in certain ways

feedback

response to a message

feedforward

information you provide before sending your primary message

managerial grid

A grid of two leadership behaviors - concern for people and concern for production - which resulted in five different leadership styles

supply chain management

Involves the management of information flows between and among stages in a supply chain to maximize total supply chain effectiveness and profitability

vertical integration

Practice where a single entity controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution

horizontal integration

absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in the same level of production and sharing resources at that level

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