What issues did the American Federation of Labor emphasize?
emphasized skilled workers, shorter hours, higher wages, better workplaces, concrete gains
What was Henry Ford's main contribution to American industrialism?
moving assembly lines
What was the greatest significance for the worker of Frederick Taylor's scientific management?
It would speed up production and make workers more interchangeable; thus, diminishing the managers' dependence on any particular employee
What major factors contributed to the growth of industry in late nineteenth century America?
abundant large materials, a large and growing labor supply, a surge in technological innovation, a fed. gov. eager to assist the growth of business, and expanding domestic market
What legal principle made investment in corporations attractive and made the growth of huge corporations possible?
Of what product did Andrew Carnegie become the major supplier of, and how?
steel and vertical integration
What was the main reason business leaders looked to establish monopolies in their industries?
charge however much you want- make money
To what did Henry George attribute the great inequality between rich and poor during the Industrial Revolution?
ownership of land
From what regions did immigration to the United States increasingly came over the course of the late nineteenth century?
Mexico, Asia, Canada, and Europe
Why did women become a greater part of the industrial labor force in post-Civil War America?
What was the first major labor union that organized on a national scale?
National Labor Union
What was the significance of the railroad strikes of 1877?
First National attempt to bring economy to a hault
Why, in late nineteenth-century America, did unions have difficulty prospering?
In what way did the Pullman strike of 1894 break new ground in labor-management relations?
Fist time Federal Troops were called out
What was the main lesson from the novels of Horatio Alger?
"Rags to Riches"
What were examples of the influence of corporate power on politics in the decades following the Civil War?
Polman Strike, Federal troops called out.
The Bessemer-Kelly process and the open-hearth process are methods of what?
new steel production techniques
Upon what aspect of Charles Darwin's theory of biological evolution was "Social Darwinism" based?
survival of the fittest
What was the significance of the Haymarket Square incident in 1886?
scared the everyday americans-chaos threatened anarchy
In what way do Social Darwinism and classical economics agree?
operating a free market regulated by competition
What were the population trends in the United States from 1860 to 1910?
it grew rapidly
What were the major contributors to urban population growth in the late nineteenth century? Which factor was the biggest contributor?
immigration and failure of agricultural sector
What major factors contributed to the movement of African Americans from the rural South to industrial cities in the latter nineteenth century?
poverty, debt, violence, and oppression African Americans encountered
Congress in 1882 passed legislation restricting the entry of immigrants from which country?
What were the characteristics of late-nineteenth-century political machines?
corrupt, effective, Tamily Hall in Chicago
What themes characterized American literature in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries?
new industrial civilization and the modern order
Which writers played a role in chronicling negative American social conditions in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries?
Stephen Crain, Frank Norris, Theodore Oveiser, Upton Sinclair, William Dean Howes
What were the major social impacts resulting from the widespread popularity of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution?
It questioned every practiced religion by Americans
What characterized American popular entertainment in late nineteenth century?
Public Entertainment- Popular entertainment- go out in crowds
What emerged as the most popular spectator sport in the post-Civil War United States?
What trends in income distribution had the most impact on the development of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century consumer economy?
Incomes are rising
What tendencies characterized late-nineteenth-century antipoverty efforts?
Of women who received higher education in the post-Civil War period, where did most of them do so?
Through Women's colleges
How did rapid population growth in the latter nineteenth century challenge American cities?
What were vaudeville shows?
a form of theater that involved musicians, comedians, magicians, jugglers, and others
Who were the most famous and notorious big-city "bosses" of the late nineteenth century?
What were the major consequences of the emergence of national press services in the latter nineteenth century?
Helped popularize yellow journalism
What were the major trends in American education during the latter nineteenth century?
Public Education, "Land Grant" Institutions, Women's Colleges
Where did the majority of big-city residents in late nineteenth-century America live?
What were the major features of the two-party system during the latter nineteenth century?
Very close balance between two parties.
During the latter nineteenth century, which groups tended to vote Republican, and which tended to vote Democratic?
democrat-white southerners republican-northerners white and black
With what issue did the Pendleton Act of 1883 deal?
What were the objectives of the "Granger laws" of the 1870s?
to subject the railroads to government controls
What did the Supreme Court's decision in Wabash v. Illinois accomplish?
States had little ability to regulate railroads
What were the federal government's key functions in the late nineteenth century?
delivering the mails and collecting tarrifs and taxes
What sort of movement was the Granger movement before it became political?
What company emerged in the 1870's to provide mail-order goods to farmers.
Who were the leaders of the Southern Farmers Alliance?
Farmers and Mary E. Lease
What were the major goals of the Populist platform?
to create a broad political coalition that included many groups
What social and political ideas were victorious in the election of 1896?
What was the objective of the Populist Party regarding industrial capitalism?
Progress and growth must continue, but should be more strictly defined by the needs of individuals and communities
What was the "Crime of '73"?
What the big bankers referred the law passed by congress in 1873 that made silver fall.
What about the economy did the Panic of 1893 reveal?
that it was capable of failure and was instable.
What characterized the relationships between late-nineteenth-century Presidents (between 1876 and 1892) and Congress?
Presidents were inconsequencial-followed house
What "uprising" was a direct response to the Panic of 1893?
What was significant about the relative strengths of the Democratic and Republican parties in the late nineteenth century?
Relative Equal Strength
What was the significance of the "cross of gold" speech?
Not to use gold standard-would crusify working men
Which President served two nonconsecutive terms in office?
What were the major themes emphasized in the writings of Alfred Thayer Mahan? To what extent did the United States implement his ideas?
productive domestic economy, foreign culture
What was the role of the American press in the period leading up to the Spanish-American War?
propaganding, mass communication such as newspapers showed the people what they wanted
What was the impact of the Platt Amendment?
banned cuba from making treaties with other countries, gave the us the night to intervene in cuba to preserve independence, life, property; required to permit American naval stations on its territory.
Where did American occupation of territory acquired from Spain face the greatest resistance?
What provided the major impetus for the United States' annexation of Hawaii?
Use as a naval base
What factors played significant roles in the United States' decision to go to war against Spain in 1898?
desire to take colonies from spain
What were the results of William Jennings Bryan's effort to spark debate on imperialism in the election of 1900?
It failed; he supported the treaty of paris and thought it would enable the democrats to have an issue to argue about
What was the purpose of the Foraker Act of 1900?
to establish a civil government in Peurto Rico
Who were leading opponents of imperialism?
Henry Cabot Lodge
What was the effect of the de Lôme letter?
created intense popular anger and led to comes resignation
What was the most serious issue in the Senate debate over the ratification of the Treaty of Paris of 1898?
a movement to oppose acquisition of the Phillipines
What were James G. Blaine's objectives in promoting Pan-American cooperation? How successful were his efforts?
Creating an inter-american customs union and a nomination procedures for hemispheric disputes (these were rejected)
How did the Venezuelan and Samoan incidents demonstrate that imperialism necessarily involved America in diplomatic maneuvers with European powers?
By the Monroe Doctrine the US wouldnt allow for any europe countries to take over other countries unless under certain circumstances
Explain the importance of the action by the U.S. Navy's Asiatic Fleet. How did such action change the character of the war?
The Cuban revolt
What role did black troops play in the United States' effort in the Spanish-American War? What social conflicts arose?
It was an opprotunity to prove themselves
What arguments were raised for and against imperialism in general and annexation of the Philippines in particular?
What was the American economic impact on Cuba, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Hawaii?
Cuba Phillipines Puerto Rico Hawaii
Who were the best-known opponents of imperialism?
Senator Henry Cabot Leage
To what did the term "yellow journalism" refer?
to a sensatonalist style of writing and reporting