Ch 8 Thinking, Intelligence, and Learning

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inductive

Human beings will often reason from the specific to the general. That is, people often form general rules and concepts based on specific experiences and examples. This type of reasoning is termed

intelligence

The concept of ________ is best defined as the ability to do well on cognitive tasks, to solve problems, and to learn from experience.

Todd has to complete a science fair project.

Who would benefit the most from making subgoals

She will only read the editorials that she agrees with

Maria is extremely active in politics. She has strong conservative beliefs about what is correct and what is not. Each day when she reads the newspaper, she pays close attention to the editorial section in particular. According to confirmation bias, what will she do when she reads them?

hindsight bias.

Every week during football season, Fred and his friends have fun following the local high school teams. Before the games, Fred never really talks too much about how the games will turn out. On Monday, however, it is a different scenario altogether. Fred is more than happy to share with his friends that the games came out exactly as he thought they would and why. Fred is demonstrating

will play a minor role in shaping one's memory

Professor Torgesen reports that more than eighty percent of the variation in memory capabilities can be explained by heritability. This means that environmental factors

her IQ is higher than normal.

If a child's mental age is higher than her chronological age, this means that

t is silver.

Which of the following would NOT be a defining property of the prototype of an airplane

engages in automatic behavior.

A mindful person is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT that he/she

False

Giftedness is indicated by an IQ score higher than 120.

True

Intelligence refers to the ability to solve problems rapidly

inductive.

Human beings will often reason from the specific to the general. That is, people often form general rules and concepts based on specific experiences and examples. This type of reasoning is termed

Both A and C are correct

Gifted children are

cognitive

Approaches that attempt to explain observable behavior by investigating mental processes fall under ________ psychology.

An algorithm always leads to a correct solution, while a heuristic does not

What is the main difference between an algorithm and a heuristic?

interprets life events

Cognitive appraisal refers to the way an individual

overcome functional fixedness

Monique routinely uses a shredder to shred her junk mail into confetti-sized pieces of paper. When packing her glassware to move into a new apartment, she runs out of protective styrofoam packing material. Suddenly, Monique gets the idea to use the shredded junk mail confetti for packing material. Monique has

the representativeness heuristic.

Samantha's belief that Gabe, who is muscular and wearing gym shorts, is a member of the football team is an example of

100

A 6-year-old child with a mental age of 6 would have a ratio IQ of

cultural-familial intellectual disability.

Sophia is in the fifth grade and lives in one of the most impoverished areas in the state. She has a history of academic failure although she is very sensitive to teacher expectations. Her teachers have noticed that she responds best when candy is offered as an incentive. Sophia's IQ is 65. She is most likely a victim of

creative

Dhiraj has an insightful mind and excels at solving new types of problems with unique solutions. Which of Sternberg's intelligences would best explain this?

start going through each drawer in his house

Ivan has misplaced his keys. If he decides to use an algorithmic approach to find them, he wil

True

According to deductive reasoning, if a theory is true, then the hypothesis will be true as well.

brushing your teeth

Which of the following represents a practical skill?

inductive

Bertha met two students from another school at a convention. She enjoyed their company a great deal and was very impressed with how nice they were. Bertha now believes that all of the students from that school must also be nice and is considering transferring there. Bertha is using ________ reasoning.

MAYBE: parallel premise

Identify the components of deductive reasoning as presented in the Instructor Notes

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