What is local regulation of physiologic responses via locally-derived mediators?
Intrinsic regulation aka autoregulation (at the site where something is going wrong)
what is it called when the nervous and endocrine systems regulate physiologic responses (non-local; systemic)?
What is the neuronal circuit that directs a specific motor response - the reaction usually opposes initial stimuli (negative feedback)?
components of endocrine reflex arc
receptors (sensitive to particular stimuli)
Integration center (usually CNS. receives and processes info from receptor and sends out commands)
Effector (cell/organ responding to commands; Can oppose or enhance initial stimuli)
**MOST ENDOCRINE REFLEXES ARE NEGATIVE (NOT POSITIVE) FEEDBACK LOOPS**
**MOST ENDOCRINE REFLEXES ARE NEGATIVE (NOT POSITIVE) FEEDBACK LOOPS**
What triggers endocrine reflexes? aka what are the stimuli?
type of stimuli that is a change in composition of extracellular fluid? eg. change in blood osmolarity (triggers an endocrine reflex)
____signaling involves cells that secrete chemical messengers into bloodstream.
____ signaling involves neurons releasing chemical messengers that enter the bloodstream
____signaling is when a neuronal action potential results in the release of hormones from endocrine cells.
At any given point in time there are a multitude of hormones circulating in the body. What are the effects of multiple hormones on one target tissue?
In what type of response are the effects weaker than those produced by either hormone acting alone/unopposed. The net result depends on the balance between the 2 hormones?
antagonistic (ex. insulin lowers blood sugar, glucagon increases it)
In what type of response are the effects greater than those produced by either hormone acting alone? The 2 hormones are additive
synergistic (ex. milk production and secretion requires estrogen, progesterone, and prolactin)
If hormone A is needed for hormone B to produce its effect - what type of response is this?
permissive (ex. thyroid increases number of receptors available for epinephrine at the latter's target cell)
If hormone A and B produce different results, the the result complement each other - what type of response is this?
integrative (ex. LH & FSH in ovum maturation.
hormones of the body can be divided into 3 groups based on their chemical structure
amino acid derivatives
amino acid derivatives
derivatives of tyrosine - thyroid hormones, catecholamines (epi, NE, Dopamine)
Derivatives of tryptophan - melatonin
chains of amino acids strung together
Can be glycoproteins: >200 aa + carbs
Can be short polypeptides and small proteins: <200 aa
Eicosanoids (derived from arachidonic acid)
steroid hormones (derived from cholesterol)
How do hormones exert their effects?
hydrophilic cell membrane receptor (GPCR, ion channel-linked, enzyme-linked)
Lipophilic intracellular receptors (eg. steroids)
Which hormones exert their effect by hydrophilic cell membrane receptor?
peptides and some amino acids
Growth is controlled by several endocrine hormones:
What are the major endocrine glands involved in growth?
gonads (and placenta! during gestation)
anterior pituitary also known as _______ consists of ____tissue and produces _ hormones.
adenohypophysis; glandular; 7
posterior pituitary also known as _______ consists of ___ tissue and produces _ hormones
neurohypophysis; neural; 2
How are H-P hormones released?
usually released in pulsatile fashion (not constant, comes in bursts) therefore the frequency of pulses and amount of hormone released influences the response of target tissue
Neurons in the hypothalamus integrate the nervous and endocrine systems in 3 ways:
1. exerts direct neural control over endocrine cells via hypothalamic nuclei that directly innervate adrenal medulla and regulate hormone secretion
2. hypothalamus secretes regulatory hormones that regulate secretory activity of endocrine cells in the anterior pituitary.
3. the hypothalamus itself acts as an endocrine organ - hypothalamic nuclei synthesizes hormones and releases them into circulation
______ in hypothalamus directly regulate ____ cells of the _____ _______ to release EPI & NE. hormones are released in response to action potentials (not other hormones) = _______.
neurons; endocrine; adrenal medulla; neuroendocrine
describe the hypophyseal portal system.
connects 2 capillary beds:
Artery(+O2) -> hypothalamic capillary bed -> portal vein -> anterior pituitary capillary bed -> vein(-O2)
What feature enables the diffusion of larger molecules into/out of the vasculature?
fenestrated capillaries (not connected to neighboring cells by tight junction)
Neurons in the hypothalamus (primarily in the ______ ______) synthesize, pack and transport ______ ______ which are released into ECF -> capillary bed -> _____ ______ _____ -> capillary bed of _____ ______
median eminence; regulatory hormones; hypophyseal portal circulation; anterior pituitary
The hypothalamic ____ _____ cause the endocrine cells of the ____ pituitary to release a hormone into systemic circulation; this is another example of ______ effect.
regulatory hormone; anterior; neuroendocrine
secretion of _____ _____ from the hypothalamus control activity of the anterior lobe of the pituitary.
What stimulates the synthesis and secretion/release of hormone from anterior pituitary? (ie. GH-RH)
What prevents synthesis and secretion of hormone from anterior pituitary? (ie. GH-IH)
This hormone is released from the anterior pituitary and stimulates cell growth/division by increasing protein synthesis. Especially skeletal and cartilage.
How is Growth Hormone release regulated?
1. GH-RH aka somatocrinin
2. GH-IH aka somatostatin
both are released from hypothalamic nuclei and results in release or inhibition, respectively, of GH from somatotrophs in the anterior pituitary
what are the Direct effects of GH on muscles? (GH doing the work)
increase a.a. uptake and protein synthesis
increase myoblast differentiation & proliferation
How is glucose involved in the effects of GH?
direct effects of GH occur when glucose levels are normal or low.
What are the direct effects of GH on adipose?
increase lipolysis. GH stimulates break down of stored FA by adipocytes, which release FA into blood. as circulating FA levels rise, many tissues stop breaking down glucose to generate ATP and instead start breaking down fatty acids. (glucose-sparing effect)
What are the direct effect of GH on the liver?
increase of glycogenolysis (breakdown of glycogen stores) by liver cells
Increase Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF) aka somatomedin productions/secretion
indirect effects of GH (IGF doing the work) important wen glucose levels are high (eg. after a meal)
Muscles: increase uptake of glucose and a.a.; increase glycogenesis; increase protein synthesis
Chondrocyte stimulation: linear bone growth
What is IGF?
Insulin-like Growth Factor aka somatomedin
-produced by liver in response to GH. "hormone 2"
Explain the sequence of negative feedback in the regulation of GH secretion
1. GH-RH inhibits its own release from the hypothalamus
2. IGF (aka somatomedin) inhibits release of GH from anterior pituitary
3. GH & IGF stimulates production of GH-IH (aka somatostatin) from hypothalamus
-decreased release of GH from anterior pituitary
Disorder caused by pituitary hyposecretion; hyposecretion of GH during childhood. Treatments include hormone replacement.
Disorder caused by hypersecretion of GH in childhood. Treatments include surgery of pituitary tumor, and RX drugs: GHr antagonist and/or somatostatin analog (not very successful; removal of tumor is best)
disorder caused by hypersecretion of GH in ADULTS. Cartilage and small bones respond causing enlargement of jaw/skull, extremities. Treatments include surgery if pituitary tumor. Rx drugs: GHr antagonist and/or somatostatin analog (more effective here than gigantism)
Acromegaly (more common than gigantism)
Explain the problems with rbGH (recombinant bovine growth hormone)
cows end up with infection - treated with antibiotics and steroids - antibiotic resistance = sad cow
IGF-1 is secreted into milk; similar affinity for hGH-R
Effects of IGF on cell proliferation
IGF turns on cyclins cells
Cancer cells with increased expression of IGF
Thyroid releasing hormone (TRH) is released from _________ ____ which stimulates anterior pituitary ________ to release _______.
hypothalamic nuclei; thyrotrophs; TSH
Target tissues of TSH
follicle cells of thyroid gland
TSH regulates all aspects of thyroid hormone synthesis and release (T3 & T4 'hormone 2')
Explain negative feedback in the role of TSH from the anterior pituitary
T3 & T4 inhibit further release of TSH from thyrotrophs & inhibit TRH release from hypothalamus
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) aka corticotropic
CRH from hypothalamus -> stimulates ant. pit. -> corticotrophs release ACTH
target cells of ACTH
zona fasciculata of adrenal cortex
-release corticosteroid (hormone 2) ie. cortisol, glucocorticoids
Explain negative feedback in the role of ACTH from the anterior pituitary
corticosteroids inhibit further release of ACTH from anterior pituitary/corticotrophs and CRH release from hypothalamus
Prolactin releasing factors (PRF) and prolactin inhibiting hormone (PIH) aka ______ is released from where?
dopamine; hypothalamic nuclei
What are the targets of prolactin?
-mammary gland development and milk production
-regulates androgen production from testes
Explain negative feedback in the role of prolactin from the anterior pituitary
prolactin inhibits its own release from mammotrophs and release of PRF from the hypothalamus.
prolactin also increases release of PIH from hypothalamus.
(prolactin inhibits prolactin, prolactin inhibits PRF, prolactin increases PIH)
the release of LH and FSH from the anterior pituitary is controlled by _______ from the hypothalamic nuclei
gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)
What are the targets of LH & FSH?
Gonads (produce hormone 2):
Testes release androgen
ovaries promotes follicle development & release estrogens, progestins
Explain negative feedback in the role of FSH & LH from the anterior pituitary
sex hormones (estrogens, progestins, androgens) inhibit further release of FSH & LH from gonadotrophs and GnRH release from hypothalamic nuclei
What does GnRH do? where is it released from?
GnRH released from hypothalamic nuclei; stimulates release of LH & FHS from anterior pituitary.
What does LH do? where is it released from?
released from gonadotrophs of anterior pituitary.
targets Gonads - ovaries and testes.
stimulates release of progestins and estrogens from ovaries
stimulates release of androgens from testes
What does FSH do? where is it released from?
released from gonadotrophs of anterior pituitary.
targets gonads - ovaries and testes.
stimulates release of estrogens from ovaries
stimulates release of testosterone from testes.
precocious puberty is when puberty occurs earlier than normal. What age is this in girls? boys?
< age 7 in girls
< age 9 in boys
What are the symptoms of precocious puberty in girls? boys? both?
girls: breast development, menstruation
boys: enlargement of genitalia, deeper voice
both: acne, body hair, growth spurt
What are the major concerns that result from precocious puberty?
self esteem issues
teasing by peers
loss of childhood
age-inappropriate sex drive
breast cancer (due to unopposed release of sex hormones)
Correlation with onset of menopause
growth spurt -> short stature
Explain the etiology of precocious puberty
usually not ovarian or testicular dysfunction
Hypothalamus triggers pituitary to release FSH, LH etc. -> puberty
other possible causes: brain tumor, CNS infection, head trauma?
*GH & IGF play a role in puberty; therefore, a lot of finger pointing in the dairy industry and where rbGH is causing endocrine disruption
What does melanocyte stimulating hormones released from the anterior pituitary stimulate?
stimulates melanin production from melanocytes in the skin
MSH production in adult humans usually occurs LOCALLY (skin) - normally NOT produced by the anterior pituitary.
When does production of MSH from anterior pituitary occur?
very young children
Neurons in the________extend into the posterior pituitary and release hormones into _____.
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) aka ______ is released from _____ ______, synthesized in _____ _______ ______. It regulates _____ and _____ balance by decreasing urination.
vasopressin; posterior pituitary; hypothalamic supraoptic nuclei; water; electrolyte
What stimulates ADH secretion?
1. increased plasma osmolarity - detected by osmoreceptors (supraoptic nuclei) in hypothalamus
2. decreased plasma volume - detected by baroreceptors in periphery (aorta, carotid artery)
Oxytocin (OXT) is released from ______ ______, synthesized in ______ ______ _____. It functions in ______ _______ and _____ ______
posterior pituitary; hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei; uterine contractions; milk ejection
What is the role of OXT in uterine contractions?
stimulates smooth muscle of uterus
-may also be trigger for labor
-also released by placenta and fetus
what is the role of OXT in milk ejection?
sensory endings in breasts are stimulated by sucking
oxytocin is released into circulation from posterior pituitary
oxytocin release causes contraction of myoepithelial cells in breast alveoli
milk ejected from breasts
milk ejection stimulates prolactin secretion which increases milk production
prolactin + OXT is a _______ effect. Explain this concept
synergistic - prolactin from acterior pituitary produced milk and oxytocin from posterior pituitary causes milk ejection
______ synthesize melatonin from tryptophan in the _______ gland.
pinealocytes (cells of pineal gland); pineal
collaterals from the visual pathway (______ ______) enter pineal gland and influence _______ production, which is highest at nighttime.
suprachiasmatic nucleus (of hypothalamus); melatonin
Functions of melatonin
1. inhibits reproductive functions
2. free radical scavenger - acts as antioxidant
3. establishes circadian rhythms
explain how melatonin inhibits reproductive functions
decreses sperm and oocyte maturation (via decreased GnRH)
-melatonin receptors in hypothalamus & pituitary
-melatonin levels decline at puberty
How does melatonin establish circadian rhythms?
because melatonin activity is cyclic, it can help maintain sleep/wake cycles
-low sunlight in winter results in higher melatonin levels and may contribute to seasonal depression
-melatonin supplements may help with insomnia (& jet lag)
What hormones and glands are involved in male fertility?
1. GnRH from hypothalamus - consistent, constant fashion, except pulsatile release @ puberty (unlike females)
2. FSH - stimulates spermatogenesis in sertoli cells (testosterone needed too) - Feedback: sertoli cells (nurse cells) produce inhibin (hormone 2) to decrease FSH (& perhaps GnRH) secretion
3. LH - increases testosterone production in Leydig cells (interstitial cells) - Feedback: testosterone inhibits GnRH release
How is testosterone involved in male reproductive function?
secondary sex characteristics
bone & muscle growth
What is the role of sertoli cells (nurse cells) in male reproductive function?
stimulated by FSH & Testosterone
secrete inhibin (decreases FSH and perhaps GnRH)
produce androgens - testosterone which stimulates spermatogenesis
what is the role of leydig cells (intersitial cells) in male reproductive function?
produce androgens - most importantly, testosterone
What hormone stimulates Leydig cells which secrete testosterone
LH from gonadotrophs in anterior pituitary
What hormone(s) stimulates sertoli (nurse cells) cells which stimulate spermatogenesis and release of inhibin?
FSH from gonadotrophs in anterior pituitary
testesterone from leydig cells
What hormones and glands are involved in female reproductive function?
1. GnRH from hypothalamus - stimulates FSH & LH from anterior pituitary
2. FSH from ant. pit. - follicle stimulation and egg maturation - stimulates estrogen which causes proliferation of endometrium, thins cervical mucus, inhibits GnRH & FSH production
3. LH from ant. pit. - ovulation stimulation - stimulates Progesterone (and Estrogen) which causes differentiation/maintenance of endometrium, thicken cervial mucus, inhibits GnRH & LH production
4. Inhibin: from mature ovum decreases FSH