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The major function(s) of the digestive system are:

breakdown and absorption of food

The process that breaking down large molecules into small ones without affecting the chemical composition is known as:

mechanical digestion

How does the function of the digestive system relate to the characteristics of life?

It provides energy that can be used in metabolic processes.

What is xerostomia?

dry mouth

What disorder is characterized by a weakened intestinal wall resulting in the inner mucous membrane protruding through the wall?

diverticulosis

Which layer of the digestive tract might contain folds and mucus-secreting glands?

mucosa

What is segmentation?

Localized contractions and relaxations of smooth muscle that help to mix food and secretions.

What is peristalsis?

A propulsive movement of contents of the lumen from one area to another.

What structure is pulled upward during swallowing to close the opening between the nasal cavity and pharynx?

uvula

How many secondary teeth are in the upper jaw?

16

What part of the tooth is composed of cellular tissue similar to bone, but harder?

dentin

In which organ do the peristaltic waves typically only occur 2-3 times each day?

large intestine

Where do sensory receptors in the stomach and small intestines send the signals necessary for the vomitting reflex?

medulla oblongata

The alimentary canal extends, in its entirety, from

the mouth to the anus

The digestive system

ingests food, propels food, mechanically and chemically breaks down food, absorbs nutrients, and defecates the remainder

The correct sequence for the layers in the walls of the alimentary canal from innermost to outermost is the

mucosa, submucosa, muscular layer, serosa

Peristalsis occurs in the digestive tract

from the pharynx to the anus.

Activities of the digestive system generally increase when it is stimulated by

parasympathetic impulses

The teeth that are best adapted for biting off hunks of food are the

incisors

The root canal of a tooth contains

blood vessels and nerves.

The mechanical breakup of food particles in the mouth is called

mastication.

The uvula is

a projection from the soft palate

Because of their location, swollen palatine tonsils may interfere with

both breathing and swallowing

Salivary amylase digests

carbohydrates

The functions of saliva include

moistening, binding and dissolving food particles; beginning chemical digestion of carbohydrates; and cleansing the teeth and mouth

The parotid glands are

the largest salivary glands

In the swallowing reflex

all of the above

The epiglottis is attached to the

larynx.

Edith suffers from severe heartburn. She goes to her physician and is diagnosed with a hiatal hernia. This condition affects her

diaphragm

Heartburn is usually caused by the effects of gastric juice on the

esophagus

Elliot thought that his peptic ulcers were caused by his nagging parents, and was surprised when the doctor handed him a prescription for medication to treat

a bacterial infection

The main part of the stomach is called the

body

It is good that Emily does not remember being a newborn, because she was miserable, vomiting frequently. An X-ray revealed hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. The problem in Emily's digestive system, before surgery helped her, was

overgrowth of muscle that blocked the passageway from the stomach to the small intestine

Matthew takes a drug that inhibits the production of HCl in the stomach to ease the symptoms of a gastric ulcer. If he takes it for a long time, digestion of which nutrient would be affected the most?

Proteins

The parietal cells of gastric glands secrete

hydrochloric acid.

All of the enzymes that digest protein are

secreted in an inactive form

Gastrin, which stomach cells secrete

increases secretion by the gastric glands

Secretion of cholecystokinin from the intestinal wall is stimulated by

protein and fat in the small intestine

The hormone secretin

stimulates release of pancreatic juice

_______ is a protein-digesting enzyme in pancreatic juice.

Trypsin

Acute pancreatitis is often caused by the conversion of

trypsinogen to trypsin

Pancreatic digestive secretions are regulated by

cholecystokinin

Functions of the liver include

all of the above.

Which of the following is true about bile?

Bile is produced by the liver

Which constituent of bile has a digestive function?

Bile salts

The liver

forms glucose from noncarbohydrates

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