Chapter 19

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What is the definition of ventilation?

The movement of air in and out of the lungs

The anatomical name of the voice box is the

larynx

What is the name of the flap-like cartilage that covers the opening to the larynx during swallowing to prevent food from entering the layrnx, trachea, and lungs?

epiglottic cartilage

What is the name of the volume of air moved in or out of the lungs during a quiet respiratory cycle?

tidal volume

Which lung volumes can be added together to calculate the functional residual capacity?

residual volume and expiratory reserve volume

What nonrespiratory air movement helps to clear the upper respiratory passageways?

sneezing

What nonrespiratory air movement is due to a spastic contraction of the diaphragm while the glottis is closed?

hiccup

Where is the ventral respiratory group located?

In the medulla oblongata in the brain

What is the effect of the thinning of alveolar walls and coalescing of alveoli that occurs with aging on alveolar surface area and gas exchange?

A decrease in surface area and decrease in gas exchange

How is the majority of oxygen transported in the blood?

Bound to the heme portion of hemoglobin

What cell of the alveolus is part of the respiratory membrane?

Type I cell

What is the term for the attraction of water molecules that contributes to the reduced alveolar size during expiration?

surface tension

Respiration is

the entire process of gas exchange between the atmosphere and cells

The events of respiration are

ventilation, external and internal respiration, and cellular respiration

Breathing functions to

deliver oxygen to cells, where it takes part in the reactions of cellular respiration that liberate energy from nutrient molecules and get rid of carbon dioxide, which maintains the pH of the internal environment

Which of the following bones does not house a sinus?

Zygomatic

Which of these laryngeal cartilages is single?

Cricoid

The pitch of a vocal sound is controlled by changing the

tension on the vocal cords

Arielle is an 8-year-old with cystic fibrosis. For 30 minutes each morning and evening, a parent holds her body in various positions and massages and kneads the areas over her lungs to dislodge the abundant, sticky mucus, which Arielle spits into a jar. She also takes medication - an enzyme - that thins the mucus. If she didn't take these measures, the mucus in her lungs would most likely increase her risk of

infection.

The vocal cords are in the

larynx

Which of the following is not a function of the mucus-covered nasal passages?

Cooling exhaled air

The intensity (volume) of a vocal sound is a result of the

force of air passing over the vocal cords

A flashlight placed just below the eyebrow in a darkened room illuminates the

frontal sinus

Laryngitis is a potentially dangerous condition because it may

obstruct the airway

The procedure used to directly examine the trachea and bronchial tree is called

bronchoscopy

The mucous membrane lining the nasal cavity

all of the above

The pharynx functions as a ______, whereas the larynx functions as a ______.

common passageway for air and food; passageway for air only

The trachea

is all of the above

As the respiratory tube branches become smaller in diameter,

the epithelial lining changes from pseudostratified ciliated columnar to cuboidal and simple squamous epithelium

The right lung has ______ lobes; the left lung has ______ lobes.

superior, middle, and inferior; superior and inferior

The force that moves air into the lungs during inspiration comes from the

atmospheric pressure

The force responsible for normal expiration is supplied by the

elastic recoil of tissues and surface tension

The volume of air that enters the lungs during forced maximal inspiration is the

inspiratory reserve volume

Of the respiratory air volumes listed, which one has the largest volume?

Vital capacity

Respiratory distress syndrome in newborns is caused by

lack of surfactant

The visceral and parietal pleural membranes are normally held together by

a thin film of serous fluid

Air entering the potential space of the pleural cavity is called

pneumothorax.

A simple spirometer cannot measure which of the following air volumes?

Residual volume

The volume of air that enters (or leaves) during a single respiratory cycle is the

tidal volume

The first event in inspiration is

the diaphragm moves downward and the external intercostal muscles contract

The first event in expiration is

the diaphragm and external intercostal respiratory muscles relax

The inverse relationship between pressure and volume is known as

Boyle's law

A sudden inspiration caused by a spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm while the glottis is closed is a

hiccup.

The respiratory control areas are in the

pons and medulla oblongata

"I'm going to hold my breath until I turn blue and stop breathing and die and it will be all your fault!" shrieked the 6-year-old at her father. The child was unable to carry out her threat because

increased CO2 and hydrogen ion concentration and decreased oxygen concentration stimulate chemoreceptors

Baby Timothy suffers from apnea and is hooked up to a monitor to warn his parents when he stops breathing. Timothy's dad snores very loudly. Timothy's condition differs from his father's in that infant apnea is

a central problem of respiratory control

The ventral part of the medulla oblongata near the origin of the vagus nerve has

central chemoreceptors

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