What is the name of the flap-like cartilage that covers the opening to the larynx during swallowing to prevent food from entering the layrnx, trachea, and lungs?
What is the name of the volume of air moved in or out of the lungs during a quiet respiratory cycle?
Which lung volumes can be added together to calculate the functional residual capacity?
residual volume and expiratory reserve volume
What nonrespiratory air movement is due to a spastic contraction of the diaphragm while the glottis is closed?
What is the effect of the thinning of alveolar walls and coalescing of alveoli that occurs with aging on alveolar surface area and gas exchange?
A decrease in surface area and decrease in gas exchange
What is the term for the attraction of water molecules that contributes to the reduced alveolar size during expiration?
The events of respiration are
ventilation, external and internal respiration, and cellular respiration
Breathing functions to
deliver oxygen to cells, where it takes part in the reactions of cellular respiration that liberate energy from nutrient molecules and get rid of carbon dioxide, which maintains the pH of the internal environment
Arielle is an 8-year-old with cystic fibrosis. For 30 minutes each morning and evening, a parent holds her body in various positions and massages and kneads the areas over her lungs to dislodge the abundant, sticky mucus, which Arielle spits into a jar. She also takes medication - an enzyme - that thins the mucus. If she didn't take these measures, the mucus in her lungs would most likely increase her risk of
The intensity (volume) of a vocal sound is a result of the
force of air passing over the vocal cords
The pharynx functions as a ______, whereas the larynx functions as a ______.
common passageway for air and food; passageway for air only
As the respiratory tube branches become smaller in diameter,
the epithelial lining changes from pseudostratified ciliated columnar to cuboidal and simple squamous epithelium
The right lung has ______ lobes; the left lung has ______ lobes.
superior, middle, and inferior; superior and inferior
The force responsible for normal expiration is supplied by the
elastic recoil of tissues and surface tension
The volume of air that enters the lungs during forced maximal inspiration is the
inspiratory reserve volume
The visceral and parietal pleural membranes are normally held together by
a thin film of serous fluid
The first event in inspiration is
the diaphragm moves downward and the external intercostal muscles contract
A sudden inspiration caused by a spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm while the glottis is closed is a
"I'm going to hold my breath until I turn blue and stop breathing and die and it will be all your fault!" shrieked the 6-year-old at her father. The child was unable to carry out her threat because
increased CO2 and hydrogen ion concentration and decreased oxygen concentration stimulate chemoreceptors
Baby Timothy suffers from apnea and is hooked up to a monitor to warn his parents when he stops breathing. Timothy's dad snores very loudly. Timothy's condition differs from his father's in that infant apnea is
a central problem of respiratory control