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_________________ is a theory of human development that holds that irrational, unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlie human behavior.

Psychoanalytic theory

_____________ is the learning process in which a particular action is followed either by something desired (which makes the person more likely to repeat the action) or by something unwanted (which makes the action less likely to be repeated).

Operant conditioning (aka Instrumental conditioning)

What is the general term for all the environmental influences that affect development after an individual is conceived?

Nurture

What is the general term for the traits, capacities, and limitations that each individual inherits genetically from his or her parents at the moment of conception?

Nature

___________ are cells in an observer's brain that respond to an action performed by someone else in the same way they would if the observer had actually performed that action.

Mirror neurons

____________ is a research design in which the same individuals are followed over time and their development is repeatedly assessed.

Longitudinal research

The _______________ is an approach to the study of human development that takes into account all phases of life, not just childhood and adulthood.

life-span perspective

In an experiment, the ______________ is the variable that is introduced to see what effect it has on the dependent variable.

independent variable (aka experimental variable)

A(n) ____________ consists of people whose ancestors were born in the same region and who often share a language, culture, and religion.

ethnic group

____________ is a term referring to the effects of environmental forces on the expression of a person's, or a species', genetic inheritance.

Epigenetic

The ______________ is the view that in the study of human development, the person should be considered in all the contexts and interactions that constitute a life.

ecological-systems approach (later renamed bioecological approach)

The ____________ is a view of human development as an ongoing, ever-changing interaction between the physical and emotional being and between the person and every aspect of his or her environment, including the family and society.

dynamic-systems theory

What is the mistaken belief that a deviation from some norm is necessarily inferior to behavior or characteristics that meet the standard?

Difference-equals-deficit error

The ____________ is a group of ideas, assumptions, and generalizations that interpret and illuminate the thousands of observations that have been made about human growth.

developmental theory

A _____________ provides a framework for explaining the patterns and problems of development.

developmental theory

The ___________ variable depends on the ___________ variable.

dependent ; independent

_____________ is a hybrid research design in which researchers first study several groups of people of different ages and then follow those groups over the years.

Cross-sequential research

__________ is a research design that compares groups of people who differ in age but are similar in other important characteristics.

Cross-sectional research

A(n) ___________ is a time when a particular type of developmental growth (in body or behavior) must happen if it is ever going to happen.

critical period

A(n) ___________ is a group defined by the shared age of its members, who, because they were born around the same time, move through life together, experiencing the same historical events and cultural shifts.

cohort

According to behaviorism, ____________ is the processes by which responses become linked to particular stimuli and learning takes place.

conditioning

The _____________ is a theory of human development that focuses on changes in how people think over time. According to this theory, our thoughts shape our attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors.

cognitive theory

_____________ is a learning process in which a meaningful stimulus gradually comes to be connected with a neutral stimulus that had no special meaning before that learning process began.

Classical conditioning (aka respondent conditioning)

____________ is a theory of human development that studies observable behavior.

Behaviorism

Behaviorism is also called ____________ because why?

learning theory ; bc it describes the laws and lessons by which behavior is learned

What type of research is defined as research that considers qualities instead of quantities?

Qualitative research

Research that provides data that can be expressed with numbers, such as ranks or scales, is what type of research?

Quantitative research

____________ is a technique for conditioning behavior in which that behavior is followed by something that is desired such as food for a hungry animal or a welcoming smile to a lonely person.

Reinforcement

The repetition of a study using different participants is known as

replication.

The _____________ is a way to answer questions that requires empirical research and data-based conclusions.

scientific method

__________ is a method of testing a hypothesis by unobtrusively watching and recording participants behavior in a systematic and objective manner in a natural setting, a laboratory, or in searches of archival data.

Scientific observation

The science that seeks to understand how and why people of all ages and circumstances change or remain the same over time is known as

the science of human development.

The _____________ is a time when a certain type of development is most likely to happen or happens most easily, although it may still happen later with more difficulty.

sensitive period
ex: a child is considered a sensitive period regarding learning a language

A(n) ____________ is a research method in which information is collected from a large number of people by interviews, written questionnaires, or some other means.

survey

A person's position in society as determined by income, wealth, occupation, education, and place of residence is known as

socioeconomic status (SES).
(aka social class)

__________ is an idea that is based on shared perceptions, not on objective reality.

Social constructions

Many age-related terms such as childhood, adolescence, yuppy, and senior citizen are

social constructions.

The ______________ is an extension of behaviorism that emphasizes the influence that other people have over a person's behavior.

social learning theory

What is the basic principle of the social learning theory?

That even without scientific reinforcement, every individual learns many things through observation and imitation of other people.

A psychology professor publishes the results of her research in a professional journal. By doing so, she:

allows other scientists to evaluate or build on her experiment.

A reason why surveys might not be the most valid of research methods is because:

many people give inaccurate responses to impress the interviewers.

Experiments allow researchers to:

determine a cause-and-effect relationship.

In an experiment, the dependent variable is:

the response.

Scientific observation permits:

the study of individuals behaving as they normally do.

The scientific method:

requires systematic testing of hypotheses.

To study people's thoughts about aging, a researcher would most likely use:

a survey.

Specify the emergent theory:

sociocultural theory

The best example of operant conditioning is:

playing the lottery.

Within the scientific method, once a researcher poses a question, her next step is to:

develop a hypothesis.

Alcoholism is caused by:

genetic and environmental factors.

An allele is:

a normal variation of a particular gene.

A sperm has ______ as many genes as a normal body cell.

half

Because most traits are polygenic, they are:

produced by many genes.

Children with Down syndrome are generally:

slower to develop mentally than other children.

Pregnant women who are HIV-positive:

can reduce the risk of infecting their fetus by taking antiretroviral drugs.

Rubella is:

another name for German measles.

The fetus begins to develop male sex organs if:

the Y chromosome sends a biochemical signal.

The neural tube will become the:

brain and spinal cord or column.

The variable most associated with decreased alcohol consumption during pregnancy is:

marriage.

A 3-day-old infant has sneezed. It is most likely that he:

did so as a reflex.

All reflexes:

are involuntary.

A synonym for "pruning" is:

"sculpting."

Babies learn to grab and hold onto objects by about:

6 months.

REM sleep:

declines after the first months of life.

Separation anxiety is most obvious in infants approximately:

9-14 months of age.

Synchrony can be best described as a:

duet.

The scientific method of the stage-five infant is:

trial and error.

The usual order of the development of spoken language is:

reflexes, cooing, babbling, spoken words.

The sucking reflex explains why babies:

suck anything that touches their lips.

According to Erikson, toddlers usually:

want to control their own bodies.

According to psychoanalytic theory, the prime focus of pleasure in early infancy is:

the mouth.

A crucial aspect of synchrony:

mutual interaction.

An enduring emotional bond between people is known as:

attachment.

A sign of secure attachment is:

attempts to be close to the caregiver.

A toddler in Freud's anal stage would also be at Erikson's:

autonomy versus shame and doubt stage.

A typical activity of the oral stage is:

breast-feeding.

Expressions of insecure-resistant/ambivalent attachment include:

clinging to the caregiver.

How do people become fixated in a Freudian stage?

Their normal developmental urges are frustrated.

Secure attachment (type B) makes a toddler:

willing to explore.

Gross motor skills such a riding a tricycle are acquired:

through a combination of brain maturation and practice.

Myelination:

speeds up the transmission of neural impulses.

Parents of a 5-year-old girl are likely to say:

"She isn't eating enough."

The most common disease of young children in developed nations is:

early tooth decay.

The part of the brain responsible for planning and analyzing matures during:

adolescence.

The process of myelination involves:

nerve insulation.

To prevent tooth decay, the most important thing parents can do is ensure that their children:

don't eat too much sugar.

The total growth seen between ages 2 and 6 approximates:

22 pounds; 15 inches.

When their 3-month-old daughter Amber lies down to take a nap, she usually turns her head and bends her limbs to the right. Her parents think this may predict later:

right-handedness.

Writing your name is a ______, whereas kicking a ball is a(n) ______.

fine motor skill; gross motor skill

According to behaviorist theorists, parents are:

models for behavior.

According to Freud, little boys cope with the guilt of wanting to kill their fathers by:

identifying with their father.

Aggression used to obtain or retain a toy or other object is called:

instrumental aggression.

An example of antisocial behavior is:

Mark intentionally knocks over Simon's blocks.

A theorist who believes gender roles are learned through role models is a:

behaviorist theorist.

Diana Baumrind is famous for her work on:

styles of parenting.

Emotional regulation develops due to:

both brain changes and learning.

Freud put a typical 5-year-old at the:

phallic stage.

The Electra complex causes girls to:

adore their father and resent their mother.

The four dimensions of parenting style are warmth, discipline, communication, and:

expectations for maturity.

A common criticism of culture-free tests is that they:

depend on children's cultural experiences.

Autism has:

biological causes and psychosocial treatments.

Childhood obesity is made more complicated by:

the interaction of genes and the environment.

Child psychologists agree that drugs are:

both underused and overused with treating children with ADHD.

Children with Asperger syndrome:

might be viewed as "high-functioning autistics."

Children with attention-deficit disorders:

experience difficulty in concentrating.

Chronic inflammation of the airways is diagnosed as:

asthma.

Maggie has dyslexia. Most likely, she experiences the most difficulty with the ______of words.

sounding out

The DSM-IV-R is a manual for:

diagnosing mental disorders.

The main symptom of ADHD is:

poor concentration.

A common characteristic of bullies is that they:

lack empathy.

A prominent researcher in the area of bullying is:

Dan Olweus.

Children who attempt to right themselves in the face of adversity need:

to connect with at least one supportive adult.

Compared with single-parent homes, two-parent homes usually have:

higher income.

Compared with younger children, older children:

more often choose friends of the same sex and background as themselves.

Kohlberg's theory has been criticized because:

the theory is seen as not taking into account cultural differences.

Kohlberg developed a famous story in a study of the development of:

moral reasoning.

Males bullies are often:

above average in size.

Preconventional morality involves:

an emphasis on reward and punishment.

The peer group usually provides:

self-validation.

According to Erikson, the goal of adolescence is to:

form a coherent identity.

According to Erikson, the identity status characterized by not questioning and no commitment, is:

diffusion.

A form of identity foreclosure is:

joining a religious cult.

Because of cluster suicides, experts recommend:

reporting the suicide without emotional overtones.

During an identity moratorium, adolescents typically:

attempt to fill the role they are in, but consider it temporary.

Peer pressure:

involves the desire to conform to one's friends or contemporaries.

Sexual self-definition is comprised of three aspects:

gender identity, gender role, and sexual orientation.

The first step in the process of self-definition involves:

establishing consistency of emotions, attitudes, beliefs, and aspirations.

The most typical sequence of identity status is:

diffusion, moratorium, achievement.

The term "parasuicide" is used rather than the term "failed suicide" because "failed suicide":

assumes that the individual intended to kill himself or herself.

According to Erikson, failure to achieve generativity results in:

stagnation and personal impoverishment.

After the first ten years most married couples find:

tension decreases as children become more independent.

As adults age, their friendships tend to:

improve.

Familism may be defined as the:

belief that family members take care of each other.

In the United States today, the social clock:

allows for greater diversity than in the past.

Regarding remarriage in the United States:

men are more likely to remarry than are women.

Relationship challenges of marriage are quite the same for:

same-sex partners.

Researchers have found that the social clock is:

greatly influenced by socioeconomic status.

The "social clock" tells us the:

appropriate or "best" age for a first marriage in our society.

Who is likely to have the most stable personality?

a 35-year-old woman

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