Immunology H2

Created by lhadleyhill 

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62 terms

infectious diseases

diseases that can be transmitted and are caused by a pathogen

non-infectious diseases

diseases that cannot be transmitted and are caused by genetics, environment or diet

pathogen

any harmful microorganism like a bacteria or virus

airborne

passing a pathogen in the air through coughing or sneezing

direct contact

passing a pathogen by touching an infected person (like kissing)

indirect contact

passing a pathogen by touching an object (like sharing a glass of water)

vector

passing a pathogen by insect (mosquito/flea) that bites infected person and then bites a new person

bacteria

single celled microorganism that can reproduce by binary fission or conjugation

pili

small hairs of bacteria used for attachment and reproduction

flagella

long hairs of bacteria used for movement

coccus

spherical shaped bacteria

bacillus

rod shaped bacteria

spirilium

spiral shaped bacteria

binary fission

bacterial method of reproduction that produces two identical cells

conjugation

bacterial method of reproduction that produces genetically different cells

cell membrane

membrane of bacteria cell that allows food in/wastes out

cell wall

outside of bacteria cell that is for protection

protein coat

packaging around a virus' DNA

antigen

protein on the outside of a virus used for attaching and infecting the host cell

lytic cycle

virus reproduction method that results in host cell bursting open to release 100's of new viruses

lysogenic cycle

virus reproduction method that results in virus DNA merging into host cell's DNA

attachment

viral reproduction stage in which virus antigen attaches to host cell

entry

viral reproduction stage in which virus DNA is injected into host cell and host cell DNA is disabled

reproduction

viral reproduction stage in which virus takes over host DNA to manufacture and assemble new virus particles

lysis

viral reproduction stage in which the host cell bursts open to release new viruses

integration

virus reproduction stage in which virus DNA merges with host cell's DNA

cell reproduction

virus reproduction stage in which host cells reproduce and copy viral DNA along with their own DNA. Host feels no symptoms

Prokaryote

all cells that have DNA floating loose in the cytoplasm (no nucleus); example bacteria

Eukaryote

all cells that have their DNA contained inside a nucleus membrane; example animal and plant cells

virus

nonliving particle of DNA wrapped in a protein coat that requires a host cell in order to reproduce

3 reasons viruses aren't alive

no metabolism (growth/eat/etc), no repro w/o host, not cellular

innate immune response

non-specific immune response that responds immediately to any pathogen

adaptive immune response

specific immune system that responds to each pathogen by producing specific antibodies and results in lasting immunity

first line of defense

barriers against pathogens

types of first lines of defense

skin, mucus & cilia, antiseptic body fluids

second line of defense

generic responses to pathogens after they have entered the body

types of second lines of defense

macrophage, natural killer T-cells, inflammation, fever

macrophage/phagocyte

WBC that circulate through the body and ingest any invading cell (bacteria, protozoa or fungi)

phagocytosis

when a macrophage surrounds and digests a pathogen

antiseptic body fluids

sweat, saliva, tears, that have enzymes that break down pathogens

mucus

sticky fluid in your nose and respiratory system that traps pathogens

cilia

small hairs in your respiratory system that push out mucus to be swallowed into the stomach or coughed out

skin

main barrier to pathogens that covers your body

inflammation

expansion of capillaries in response to histamines that draws in white blood cells

histamines

chemicals sent out by injured cells that result in inflammation

fever

the hypothalmus region of the brain increases body temperature to kill pathogens

natural killer T-cells

cells that circulate through the body and poke holes in any viral infected host cell or cancerous host cell

humoral immune response

part of your adaptive immune response that includes B cells producing antibodies

cell mediated immune response

part of your adaptive immune response that includes T cells becoming cytotoxic

B cell

WBC that produces antibodies as part of your adaptive immune response

Memory B cell

WBC that is stored and capable of antibody production in the event of a reinfection with the same pathogen

Helper T cell

part of the adaptive immune response that receives a antigen message from macrophage and the initiates B cell division

Antibody

protein created by the B cell that has is specifically shaped to cap an antigen on a single type of pathogen

Cytotoxic T cell

cell that is capable of destroying host cells infected by viruses during the cell mediated response

Memory T cell

Stored cell with memory of antigen that can become cytotoxic if a specific virus is reintroduced

Immunity

acquired, or induced resistance to infection by a specific pathogen

Active immunity

acquired immunity to a specific pathogen as a result of exposure to the antigen through vaccine or infection

Passive immunity

temporary resistance to infection by a specific pathogen due to injection or transfer of antibodies against that pathogen

Epidemic

sudden increase of infected person in a localized area

Pandemic

sudden increase of infected persons in a large area even world-wide

Endemic

consistent low grade level of infection in a population

Vaccine

damaged or destroyed pathogen that still contains the antigen and is given to induce an immune response

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