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The basic components of emotion are

C. expressive behaviors, physiological arousal, and conscious experience.

Who suggested that "we feel sorry because we cry . . . afraid because we tremble"?

B. William James

The James-Lange theory of emotion states that

A. to experience emotion is to be aware of our physiological responses to an emotion-arousing event.

Cassandra's mother told her, "You know you are in love when your heart beats fast and you experience that unique
trembling feeling inside." This remark best illustrates the ________ theory of emotion.

D. James-Lange

The idea that an emotion-arousing stimulus is simultaneously routed to the cortex and to the sympathetic nervous
system is central to the

D. Cannon-Bard theory.

According to the Cannon-Bard theory, the body's arousal is related to the sympathetic nervous system in the same
way that subjective awareness of emotion is related to the

A. cortex.

According to the James-Lange theory, we experience emotion ________ we notice our physiological arousal.
According to the Cannon-Bard theory we experience emotion ________ we become physiologically aroused.

C. after; at the same time as

According to the ________, you would be able to experience emotion even without sympathetic nervous system
arousal

A. Cannon-Bard theory

Tranquilizing drugs that inhibit sympathetic nervous system activity often reduce people's subjective experience of
intense anxiety. Which theory of emotion would have the greatest difficulty explaining this effect?

B. Cannon-Bard

The two-factor theory of emotion was proposed by

B. Robert Zajonc and Richard Lazarus

The two-factor theory of emotion places more emphasis on the importance of ________ than does the James-
Lange theory.

A. cognitive activity

According to the two-factor theory, the two basic components of emotions are ________ and ________.

D. a cognitive label; physical arousal

Who thought that the patterns of physiological arousal that accompany emotion are not distinctly different enough
to account for our many different states of emotion?

D. all of these people

Noticing that his heart was pounding and that his palms were sweaty while he was taking a difficult test, Harley
concluded that he was "anxious." Noticing that his heart was pounding and that his palms were sweaty when an
attractive lady asked him to dance, Harley concluded that he was "falling in love." The differing emotions
experienced by Harley can best be explained by the

C. two-factor theory.

A therapist tells a patient who is afraid of elevators that his rapid breathing while on an elevator is not due to fear
but is a natural consequence of too little oxygen in a small, enclosed space. With this new interpretation of his
arousal, the patient no longer dreads elevators. The reduction in the patient's fear is best understood in terms of the

B. two-factor theory.

The two-factor theory of emotion would have difficulty explaining why a

C. person automatically fears snakes even though he thinks they are attractive and harmless.

The autonomic nervous system regulates the ________ that accompanies different emotions.

C. physiological arousal

When confronted by an armed robber, your emotional arousal is likely to be accompanied by

B. slowing of digestion.

A hormone that increases heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar levels in times of emergency is

B. epinephrine.

As her professor distributed the mathematics test to the class, Blair's heart started to pound and her palms began
to sweat. These physiological reactions were activated by her ________ nervous system.

A. sympathetic

Activation of the sympathetic nervous system

B. increases respiration and decreases salivation.

Which division of the nervous system calms the body after an emergency has passed?

D. parasympathetic

When her son fails to arrive home as expected, Elena fears he has been in an accident. Both her heart and
respiration rate remain elevated until she sees him come safely through the door. Her body soon returns to normal
due to the action of her ________ nervous system.

A. parasympathetic

The parasympathetic nervous system is to the sympathetic nervous system as ________ is to ________.

C. contraction of pupils; dilation of pupils

Test performance is typically ________ when physiological arousal is ________.

A. best; moderate

Thaddeus will play a violin solo at his school tomorrow. His musical performance is likely to be ________ if his
physiological arousal during the performance is ________.

D. best; moderate

The level of physiological arousal typically associated with peak performance tends to be

D. lower on tasks that are difficult.

A psychologist would have the greatest difficulty differentiating between anger and fear by monitoring the
________ associated with each.

C. heart rates

The emotion of fear is sometimes accompanied by ________ that differ from those that accompany rage.

D. hormone secretions and finger temperatures

The right prefrontal cortex is more active than the left prefrontal cortex when people experience

C. disgust.

As people experience negative emotions

A. the right prefrontal cortex becomes more electrically active.

Increased activity in the right prefrontal cortex is to ________ as increased activity in the left frontal lobe is to
________.

B. disgust; joy

Electrical stimulation of the ________ has been observed to trigger smiling and laughter in depressed patients.

B. nucleus accumbens

Which of the following research findings is consistent with the James-Lange theory of emotion?

B. Distinctly different patterns of brain activity are associated with distinctly different emotions.

Research has shown that neck-level spinal cord injuries reduce the intensity of certain emotional experiences. This
finding supports the

C. James-Lange theory.

For purposes of lie detection, investigators have most commonly made use of a(n)

D. polygraph.

Boyd, a suspect in a criminal investigation, has agreed to take a lie detector test. The machine used in this test is
most likely to measure his

D. perspiration levels.

Research on the accuracy of lie detector tests suggests that they

C. are more likely to declare the innocent guilty than to declare the guilty innocent.

The guilty knowledge test is typically used to

B. assess a suspect's responses to details of a crime.

A polygraph examination of a suspected murderer included an assessment of his reaction to a detailed description
of the victim's clothing and death wounds—details that would be known only to a person at the scene of the
crime. The investigators were using the

C. guilty knowledge test.

Which of the following brain areas became especially active when a research participant lied about holding a five
of clubs?

A. anterior cingulate cortex

In one experiment, college men were injected with epinephrine before spending time with either a joyful or an
irritated person. The results of this experiment support the idea that

C. our experience of emotion depends on how we interpret the body's arousal.

In an experiment to test the spillover effect, college men were injected with epinephrine prior to spending time
with an experimenter's accomplice who acted either euphoric or irritated. Which individuals in this experiment
were LEAST likely to experience the emotion demonstrated by the experimenter's accomplice?

C. those who were told that the injection would cause them to become physiologically aroused

Lee was momentarily terrified as a passing automobile nearly sideswiped his car. When one of his passengers
joked that he almost had a two-color car, Lee laughed uncontrollably. Lee's emotional volatility best illustrates the

D. spillover effect.

The spillover effect is best explained in terms of the

D. two-factor theory.

After being physically aroused by his daily three-mile run, Martin finds that he experiences stronger resentment if
his wife asks for an unexpected favor and more intense romantic feelings if she kisses him. Martin's experience
can best be explained by the

A. two-factor theory.

Evidence that people can develop an emotional preference for stimuli to which they have been unknowingly
exposed has convinced Robert Zajonc that

D. sometimes emotions precede cognition.

Our most rapid and automatic emotional responses may result from the routing of sensory input through the
thalamus directly to the

D. amygdala.

Unlike the low-road brain pathway, the high road for emotional responses extends through the

B. cortex

Rapid fear reactions to sensory input in the absence of conscious thought are possible because certain neural
pathways bypass the

D. prefrontal cortex.

In their dispute over the role of cognition in emotion, both Zajonc and Lazarus agree that

C. some emotional reactions involve no conscious thinking.

Chiana and her husband both want to feel and express greater warmth and affection for each other. They would be
advised to spend time looking intently at one another's

A. eyes.

People are especially good at quickly detecting facial expressions of

A. anger

When shown a face with an evenly mixed expression of fear and anger, ________ children were much quicker
than other children to see anger.

B. physically abused

We find it especially difficult to detect from other people's facial expressions whether they are

C. lying

Research on the nonverbal expression of emotion indicates that

C. introverts are better than extraverts at recognizing nonverbal expressions of emotion in others.

People often overestimate the clarity of their intentions in their e-mails because they underestimate the importance
of ________ in communication.

C. tones of voice

In terms of ability to recognize others' facial expressions of emotion

A. introverts do better than extraverts and women do better than men.

Compared with men, women are ________ effective in discerning whether someone is telling a lie, and they are
________ effective in discerning which of two people in a photo is the other's supervisor.

C. more; more

If a gender-neutral face is made to look angry, most people perceive it as ________. If asked to imagine an angry
face, most identify it as ________.

C. male; male.

Men and women students watched film clips that were sad, happy, or frightening. Measures taken during their
viewing of films showed that the genders differed the most in their

C. facial expressions of emotion.

Compared with males, females are more likely to cry and report distress when observing someone in distress. This
best illustrates

D. empathy

People from different cultures are most likely to differ with respect to

D. how they interpret hand gestures such as the "thumbs up" signal.

Research on nonverbal communication indicates that

C. blind children who have never observed others demonstrate normal facial expressions of emotion.

The fact that people from widely different cultures display and interpret facial expressions of emotion in a similar
manner best illustrates the impact of

A. human genetic similarities.

It has been suggested that baring the teeth is universally associated with the expression of anger because this
ability to convey threats has helped humans to survive. This suggestion best illustrates the

A. evolutionary perspective.

In which country are people most likely to convey visible facial expressions of their inner feelings?

B. Australia

Researchers attempt to understand emotions using biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis.
The psychological level of analysis is especially likely to emphasize the importance of

B. cognitive labeling

The fact that facial expressions of emotion tend to intensify the experience of emotion serves to support the

C. James-Lange theory.

Repeatedly saying the word "me" puts people in a better mood than repeatedly saying "you." This best illustrates the

D. facial feedback effect.

People experience a mood shift when they switch from taking short shuffling steps to taking long strides and
swinging their arms by their sides. This best illustrates

C. the behavior feedback phenomenon.

Imitating another person's facial expression of emotion is most likely to facilitate

D. empathy

Ten distinct and basic emotions were identified by

D. Caroll Izard.

People tend to describe their experienced emotions along the two dimensions of

C. valence and arousal.

The emotion of rage is characterized by negative valence and ________ arousal

A. high

Ever since Lupe was scolded and punished by her teacher for misbehaving, she has been fearful of being near the
teacher. This illustrates that fear

C. can be learned.

Most young children are fearful of bees, even though they have never been stung by one. This best illustrates that fear

B. can be learned through observation.

Research suggests that monkeys reared in the wild fear snakes because they

D. have observed other monkeys' fearful reactions to snakes

Research on human fear indicates that

C. people seem to be biologically predisposed to learn some fears more quickly than others.

Rabbits fail to react with fear to a signal of impending shock if they have suffered damage to the part of the brain called the

B. amygdala.

Scientists have isolated a gene that influences the amygdala's response to frightening situations. People with a
short version of this gene have high levels of ________ available to activate amygdala neurons.

A. serotonin

A friend's misdeed is especially likely to trigger feelings of anger if the misdeed is perceived as

D. willful.

The term catharsis refers to emotional

C. release.

According to the catharsis hypothesis, retaliating against someone who provokes us can calm us down because retaliation

A. relieves aggressive urges.

Which of the following children is most likely to calm down emotionally shortly after venting his anger?

B. Jeremiah, who attacks his irritating younger brother for spitting at him

A psychotherapist suggests that Theresa can effectively reduce the anger she feels toward her ex-boyfriend by
tearing pictures of him into little pieces. This therapeutic technique is based on the

A. catharsis hypothesis.

Charles Darwin's suggestion that violent gestures increase one's anger is most inconsistent with the

C. catharsis hypothesis.

Employees who have just been laid off are asked questions that encourage them to express hostility toward their
employer. Research suggests that this opportunity to vent anger will

D. increase their hostility.

Rosaria is upset with her husband for not putting his dirty clothes in the laundry basket. Anger experts would most
likely recommend that she deal with her frustration by saying to him

C. "It annoys me that you leave your dirty clothes for me to pick up."

Mentally rehearsing resentments contributes to ________ perspiration levels and ________ blood pressure levels
than mentally rehearsing forgiveness.

B. higher; higher

The feel-good, do-good phenomenon refers to the fact that when people feel happy they

A. are more willing to help others.

Jed wants his roommate Dante to help him study for a physics test. Dante is most likely to want to help after he
has

B. received an A on his psychology test.

Subjective well-being refers to

C. self-perceived happiness.

People's moment-to-moment positive moods tend to be highest near the ________ hours of their waking day and
their moment-to-moment negative moods tend to be highest near the ________ hours of their waking day.

B. middle; later

After receiving very bad news, people ________ the duration of their negative emotions.

A. overestimate

The loss of an arm in an automobile accident is likely to ________ a person's long-term feelings of life
satisfaction. Winning a million-dollar casino jackpot is likely to ________ a person's long-term feelings of life
satisfaction.

D. have little effect on; have little effect on

Enjoying your second piece of pie less than your first illustrates

D. the diminishing returns phenomenon.

The diminishing returns phenomenon is familiar to economists as diminishing

D. marginal utility.

During the last four decades, the buying power of Americans has ________ and their self-reported personal
happiness has ________.

B. increased; remained almost unchanged

People are likely to experience higher levels of ________ if they seek to contribute to their communities rather
than simply strive for personal wealth and power.

C. subjective well-being

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