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Chapter 14

The percentage of red blood cells in a sample of human blood is normally about
A. 15%.
B. 30%.
C. 45%.
D. 60%.
E. 80%

C. 45%

Hematocrit is
A. the percent of red blood cells in a blood sample.
B. a disease.
C. a clotting factor.
D. the color of plasma.
E. none of the above.

A. the percent of red blood cells in a blood sample.

"Formed Elements" are
A. sodium and potassium.
B. blood cells and platelets.
C. serum and plasma.
D. blood and lymph.
E. tiny clots.

B. blood cells and platelets

Blood volume varies with
A. amount of adipose tissue.
B. changes in electrolyte concentration.
C. changes in fluid concentrations.
D. body size.
E. all of the above.

E. All of the Above

The formed elements in the blood are
A. mostly red blood cells.
B. mostly white blood cells.
C. mostly platelets.
D. about equal numbers of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
E. only in the buffy coat.

A. mostly red blood cells

The biconcave cells in blood that lack nuclei when they are mature are the
A. white blood cells.
B. red blood cells.
C. platelets.
D. macrophages.
E. plasma cells.

B. red blood cells.

Which of the following is an agranulocyte?
A. A basophil
B. An eosinophil
C. A neutrophil
D. A polymorphonuclear leukocyte
E. A monocyte

E. A monocyte

The normal white blood cell count is
A. 500-1,000 cells per microliter of blood.
B. 4,500-10,000 cells per microliter of blood.
C. 45,000-100,000 cells per microliter of blood.
D. 5,000,000-10,000,000 cells per microliter of blood.
E. none of the above.

B. 4,500-10,000 cells per microliter of blood.

Platelets are best described as
A. giant, multinucleated cells.
B. immature leukocytes.
C. cytoplasmic fragments of cells.
D. lymphoid cells.
E. immature red blood cells.

C. cytoplasmic fragments of cells.

Which is the correct sequence for differentiation of a red blood cell?
A. Hematopoietic stem cell, erythrocyte, hematoblast, erythroblast
B. Hematopoietic stem cell, erythroblast, erythrocyte, reticulocyte
C. Hematopoietic stem cell, hemocytoblast, erythrocyte, erythroblast
D. Hematopoietic stem cell, erythroblast, reticulocyte, erythrocyte
E. Reticulocyte, erythroblast, hematopoietic stem cell

D. Hematopoietic stem cell, erythroblast, reticulocyte, erythrocyte

A primary function of lymphocytes is to
A. phagocytize damaged cells.
B. produce enzymes that dissolve blood clots.
C. release substances that initiate blood clots.
D. stimulate formation of red blood cells.
E. act against foreign substances.

E. act against foreign substances.

Vitamin B12 is poorly absorbed in the absence of
A. folic acid
B. erythropoietin.
C. intrinsic factor.
D. erythroblasts.
E. extrinsic factor.

C. intrinsic factor.

Biliverdin and bilirubin are pigments that result from the breakdown of red blood cells. Biliverdin is ______
in color and bilirubin is ______ in color.
A. greenish; purple
B. greenish; orange
C. black; red
D. brownish; orange
E. black; orange

B. greenish; orange

Which two mature blood cell types descend from myeloblasts?
A. T cells and B cells
B. Erythrocytes and platelets.
C. Neutrophils and basophils.
D. Monocytes and lymphocytes.
E. Erythrocytes and plasma cells.

C. Neutrophils and basophils.

Heme released from hemoglobin in aged red blood cells is decomposed in the liver into
A. iron and the bile pigment biliverdin, which is eventually converted to bilirubin.
B. iron and the bile pigment bilirubin, which is eventually converted to biliverdin.
C. iron and interleukins.
D. serum and plasma proteins.
E. magnesium and chlorophyll.

A. iron and the bile pigment biliverdin, which is eventually converted to bilirubin.

Which of the following formed elements releases serotonin?
A. Erythrocytes
B. Platelets
C. Neutrophils
D. Basophils
E. Plasma cells

B. Platelets

Which of the following are most active as phagocytes?
A. Erythrocytes
B. Neutrophils
C. Platelets
D. Eosinophils
E. Basophils

B. Neutrophils

Heparin prevents blood clotting by
A. binding to calcium ions.
B. interfering with the formation of thrombin and fibrinogen.
C. inhibiting the formation of prothrombin activator and the action of thrombin on fibrinogen.
D. depleting the blood of platelets.
E. none of the above

C. inhibiting the formation of prothrombin activator and the action of thrombin on fibrinogen.

Cyanosis is caused by an increased blood concentration of
A. deoxyhemoglobin.
B. oxyhemoglobin.
C. carbon dioxide.
D. carbon monoxide.
E. oxygen

A. deoxyhemoglobin.

Sickle cell disease is caused by
A. a lack of dietary iron.
B. a lack of intrinsic factor.
C. an excess of hemoglobin.
D. a mutation.
E. a virus.

D. a mutation.

Hydroxyurea treats sickle cell disease by
A. activating a gene that normally functions only in a fetus.
B. removing sickled cells.
C. stimulating hematopoietic stem cells.
D. transfusing new blood.
E. none of the above.

A. activating a gene that normally functions only in a fetus.

The form of anemia caused by lack of dietary iron is
A. pernicious anemia.
B. aplastic anemia.
C. hemolytic anemia.
D. iron deficiency anemia.
E. sickle cell anemia.

D. iron deficiency anemia.

The proteins that B cells produce that attack foreign cells are
A. MHC complexes.
B. interleukins.
C. lymphocytes.
D. antibodies.
E. antigens.

D. antibodies.

Pus is composed of
A. neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils.
B. bacteria, white blood cells, and damaged cells.
C. mucus, sputum, and platelets.
D. water, serum, and fibers.
E. none of the above.

B. bacteria, white blood cells, and damaged cells.

Diapedesis is
A. the formation of platelets from megakaryocytes.
B. a brand of adult diaper.
C. movements of white blood cells out of the circulation.
D. squeezing of red blood cells through narrow capillaries.
E. filling of red blood cells with hemoglobin.

C. movements of white blood cells out of the circulation.

Oxyhemoglobin is ______ in color, whereas deoxyhemoglobin is ______ in color.
A. bright red; bluish
B. bright orange; bright red
C. purple; bluish
D. brownish; bluish
E. dull red; bright red

A. bright red; bluish

Blood vessel spasms following an injury are stimulated by
A. parasympathetic impulses.
B. the formation of a fibrin clot.
C. serotonin released from platelets.
D. the release of heparin from eosinophils.
E. norepinephrine released from leukocytes.

C. serotonin released from platelets.

Athletes abuse erythropoeitin (EPO) because it
A. increases the red blood cell supply, which brings more oxygen to muscle cells.
B. decreases the red blood cell supply, which brings more oxygen to muscle cells.
C. increases the red blood cell supply, which depletes oxygen from muscle cells.
D. increases the white blood cell supply, which prevents infection.
E. increases the platelet supply, which prevents bleeding.

A. increases the red blood cell supply, which brings more oxygen to muscle cells.

Which of the following drinks reduces the amount of iron absorbed from food?
A. Milk
B. Tea
C. Coffee
D. Wine
E. Diet Dr. Pepper

B. Tea

What is the substance in tea that binds iron, reducing the amount absorbed?
A. Ascorbic acid
B. Caffeine
C. Folic acid
D. Tannic acid
E. Glucosamine

D. Tannic acid

Blood platelets
A. lack nuclei.
B. release serotonin.
C. number from 130,000 - 360,000 per microliter blood.
D. form from megakaryocytes.
E. all of the above

E. all of the above

Nonprotein nitrogenous substances include
A. amino acids.
B. urea.
C. uric acid
D. creatinine.
E. all of the above.

E. all of the above.

As a result of starvation or a protein-deficient diet, blood protein concentration
A. increases and water accumulates in tissue spaces.
B. decreases and water accumulates in tissue spaces.
C. increases and water accumulates in cells.
D. decreases and water accumulates in cells.
E. increases and the person urinates uncontrollably.

B. decreases and water accumulates in tissue spaces.

Which plasma protein is accurately described?
A. albumin-blood clot formation
B. gamma globulin-maintaining blood osmotic pressure
C. fibrinogen-transport of lipids and fat-soluble vitamins
D. beta globulins-transport of lipids and fat-soluble vitamins
E. alpha globulin-determination of blood type

D. beta globulins-transport of lipids and fat-soluble vitamins

In edema
A. the body withers from dehydration.
B. tissues swell with fluid.
C. blood clots inappropriately.
D. monocytes dominate the blood.
E. a clot forms in the pulmonary artery.

B. tissues swell with fluid.

Plasma electrolytes include
A. bicarbonate, magnesium, chloride, and potassium ions.
B. monocytes, basophils, and eosinophils.
C. T cells and B cells.
D. urea and uric acid.
E. fibrinogen, globulins, and albumin.

A. bicarbonate, magnesium, chloride, and potassium ions.

Which of the following is not required for the formation of a blood clot?
A. Calcium
B. Fibrinogen
C. Prothrombin
D. Albumin
E. Vitamin K

D. Albumin

What is the difference between serum and plasma?
A. Plasma contains calcium; serum does not.
B. Plasma does not have blood cells; serum does.
C. Plasma contains fibrinogen; serum does not.
D. Plasma contains albumin; serum does not.
E. Plasma is a solid; serum is a liquid.

C. Plasma contains fibrinogen; serum does not.

A blood clot that forms abnormally in a blood vessel is a(n)
A. aneurysm.
B. embolus.
C. thrombus.
D. stroke.
E. myocardial infarction.

C. thrombus.

Prothrombin time is a blood test used to evaluate
A. intravascular clotting.
B. the Hageman factor.
C. extrinsic clotting mechanism.
D. intrinsic clotting mechanism.
E. mismatched blood types.

C. extrinsic clotting mechanism.

A pulmonary embolism is most likely caused by a clot reaching
A. a lung through a pulmonary artery.
B. a lung through a pulmonary vein.
C. the heart through a pulmonary artery.
D. the heart through a pulmonary vein.
E. the liver through a pulmonary artery.

A. a lung through a pulmonary artery.

Thrombocytopenia is due to a deficiency of
A. vitamin K.
B. platelets.
C. von Willebrand factor.
D. factor VII.
E. leukocytes.

B. platelets.

As a platelet plug forms, platelets release
A. collagen.
B. creatine.
C. serotonin.
D. fibrin.
E. acetylcholine.

C. serotonin.

The release of tissue thromboplastin initiates
A. the intrinsic clotting mechanism.
B. the extrinsic clotting mechanism.
C. platelet plug formation.
D. hemolysis.
E. none of the above.

B. the extrinsic clotting mechanism.

The basic event in the formation of a blood clot is the change of
A. fibrinogen to fibrin.
B. fibrin to fibrinogen.
C. thrombin to prothrombin.
D. vitamin K to prothrombin.
E. red blood cells to platelets.

A. fibrinogen to fibrin.

The final step in the formation of a blood clot is
A. the formation of prothrombin activator.
B. that thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin.
C. that prothrombin activator converts prothrombin to thrombin.
D. tissue damage.
E. activation of factor XI.

B. that thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin.

Vitamin K
A. is essential for the synthesis of prothrombin.
B. is used to make hemoglobin.
C. requires intrinsic factor to be absorbed.
D. is a clotting factor.
E. is all of the above.

A. is essential for the synthesis of prothrombin.

Petechiae are a symptom of
A. anemia.
B. thrombocytopenia.
C. ischemia.
D. hemophilia.
E. leukemia.

B. thrombocytopenia.

Marianne has small, bruise-like spots on her skin and a low platelet count. These blemishes are most likely
A. pinpricks.
B. blood blisters.
C. petechiae.
D. hematomas.
E. anal fissures.

C. petechiae.

The red blood cells of type AB blood have on their surfaces
A. antigens A and B.
B. antigen A only.
C. antigen B only.
D. neither antigens A nor B.
E. different A and B antigens depending upon circumstances.

A. antigens A and B.

Which is the most rare ABO blood type in the US?
A. A
B. B
C. AB
D. O
E. Rh

C. AB

The distribution of ABO blood types among Korean Americans differs markedly from that of Native
Americans in that
A. Native Americans have about equal frequency of types O, A, and B, with 10% AB, whereas Korean
Americans have mostly type O, with type AB very rare.
B. nearly all Korean Americans are blood types A or B.
C. nearly all Native Americans are type AB, with very few type O.
D. Korean Americans have about equal frequency of types O, A, and B, with 10% AB, whereas Native
Americans have mostly type O, with type AB very rare.
E. Korean Americans have equal numbers of all four ABO blood types, whereas Native Americans have high
frequencies of type O and type B.

D. Korean Americans have about equal frequency of types O, A, and B, with 10% AB, whereas Native
Americans have mostly type O, with type AB very rare.

Erythroblastosis fetalis may occur in
A. a second Rh-positive fetus developing in an Rh-negative woman.
B. a first Rh-positive fetus developing in an Rh-negative woman.
C. a second Rh-negative fetus developing in an Rh-negative woman.
D. a first Rh-negative fetus developing in an Rh-negative woman.
E. any fetus in an Rh-negative woman.

A. a second Rh-positive fetus developing in an Rh-negative woman.

What percentage of the US population is Rh negative?
A. 1.5% of Caucasians and 5% of African Americans
B. 5% of Caucasians and 5% of African Americans
C. 15% of Caucasians and 5% of African Americans
D. 25% of the total population
E. 33% of the total population.

C. 15% of Caucasians and 5% of African Americans

Transfusions to the fetus and neonate with Rh-negative blood are to
A. avoid a systemic clotting response.
B. alleviate antigenic responses.
C. provide a new blood type.
D. prevent brain damage.
E. prevent leukemia.

D. prevent brain damage.

Universal precautions are
A. specific measures that astronauts take in space to avoid leaving microorganisms beyond the Earth.
B. specific measures that health-care workers should take to prevent transmission of bloodborne pathogens in
the workplace.
C. rules used to avoid mismatched blood types in transfusions.
D. the careful administration of clotting factors to stop bleeding during surgery.
E. devising a synthetic blood that anyone can use.

B. specific measures that health-care workers should take to prevent transmission of bloodborne pathogens in
the workplace.

The symptoms of porphyria variegata result from a defect in
A. recycling of the prophyrin ring of hemoglobin in red blood cells.
B. synthesis of clotting factors.
C. recycling of bilirubin.
D. lymphocyte production.
E. platelet formation from megakaryocytes.

A. recycling of the prophyrin ring of hemoglobin in red blood cells.

Stacy has been tired and bruising easily, and she's had three respiratory infections in the past few months.
She has also had headaches and a few nosebleeds. A physician should check her for
A. erythroblastosis fetalis.
B. leukemia.
C. sickle cell disease.
D. edema.
E. none of the above.

B. leukemia.

In leukemia
A. the blood has too many immature leukocytes.
B. the person has lowered resistance to infection.
C. the blood has too few platelets
D. the person has a tendency to bleed and bruise.
E. all of the above.

E. all of the above.

On a long transcontinental flight, a middle-aged man gets up and exercises in the aisle, moving his hands,
feet, arms, and legs as much as he can. He does this every two hours. The flight attendant asks him to sit down,
but he explains that he is trying to prevent a very dangerous medical condition. He is talking about
A. leukemia.
B. deep vein thrombosis.
C. aplastic anemia.
D. thrombocytopenia.
E. guinea worm infection.

B. deep vein thrombosis.

Risk factors for deep vein thrombosis are
A. prolonged periods of staying still in one position.
B. use of oral contraceptives or estrogen.
C. recent abdominal surgery.
D. dehydration.
E. all of the above.

E. all of the above.

Genotyping differs from serology in that
A. genotyping detects diverse antigens, whereas serology detects the underlying genetic instructions for those
antigens.
B. serology detects diverse antigens, whereas genotyping detects the underlying genetic instructions for those
antigens.
C. genotyping requires a fresh blood sample whereas serology can be done on a dried sample.
D. serology is faster.
E. none of the above are true.

B. serology detects diverse antigens, whereas genotyping detects the underlying genetic instructions for those
antigens.

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