Nutrition Final. Chapter 12, 14, 15 and 16

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There are an estimated ___ chronically undernourished people in the world.

800 million to 1.1 billion

The number one killer of children in developing countries is

diarrhea

The human organism is particularly susceptible to the effects of undernutrition during

Pregnancy, infancy and childhood

A barrier to solving undernutrition in the developing world is NOT

a lack of manpower

Many of the child deaths each year in developing countries could be prevented if

Sanitation and hygiene were improved

The food stamp program, recently renamed the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, allows what?

Low income people to purchace food and seeds with government issued Electronic Benefit transfer card

a long term solution to world hunger is

jobs and sufficiency

Bt corn has been genertically modified to make

a protein toxic to caterpillars that can destroy the corn plant

Genetically modified soybeans make up ___% of the soybeans grown in the U.S.

90

FDA reguires the statement "contains genetically modified ingredients" on the label of all food containing genetically modified ingredients.

False

Define Xerophthalmia

"Dry eye". Cause of blindness that results from a vitamin A deficiency. a lack of mucus production by the eye, which leaves it at a greater risk of damage from surface dirt and bacteria.

Malnutrition

failing health that results from long standing dietary practices that do not coincide with nutritional needs.

Undernutrition

Failing health that results from a long standing dietary intake that is not enough to meet nutritional needs.

Biotechnology

a collection of processes that involves the use of biological systems for altering and improving the characterisitics of plants, animals and other forms of life.

Famine

extreme shortage of food, leads to massive starvation in a population; associated with crop failures, war and political unrest

Green revolution

increase in crop yields that accompied the introduction of new agricultural technologies in less developed countries, beginning in the 1960s. the key technology were high yielding, disease resistant strains of rice, wheat and corn; greater use of fertilizer and war; and improved cultivation practices.

let down reflex

a reflex stimulated by infant suckling that causes the release (ejection) of milk from milk ducts in the mothers breasts, also called milk ejection reflex.

life span

the potential oldest age a person can reach

life expectancy

the average length of a life for a given group of people born in a specific year

reverse capacity

the extent to where a organ can preserve essentially normal function despite decreasing cell number or cell activity

Poverty is linked to what?

Chronic or periodic undernutrition

Malnutrition can occur when what

When the food supply is either scarce or abundant

What is the most common form of malnutrition in developing countries?

Undernutrition

Undernutrition diminishes what?

Physical and metal capabilities

What programs have focused on improving the nutritional health of poor and at risk people

special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants and children (WIC)

What factors contribute to the problem of undernutrition in the developing world?

Multiple factors, in densely populated countries, food resources as well as the means for distributing food may be inadequate. Farming methods often encourage erosion, which deprives the soil of valuable nutrients and therby hampers future efforts to grow food. Limited water availability hinders food production. Naturally occuring devastation from droughts, excessive rainfall, fire, crop infestations and human causes- urbanization, war and civil unrest, debt, poor sanitation, and AIDS

Food insecure

condition in which the quality, variety, and or desirability of the diet is reduced and there is difficulty at times providing enough food for everyone in the household.

hunger

the primarily physiological (internal) drive to find and eat food

food insecutiry

a condition of anxiety regarding running out of either food or money to buy more food

malnutrition

failing health that results from longstanding dietary practices that do not concide with nutritional needs

undernutrition

failing health that results from a longstanding dietary intake that is not enough to meet nutritional needs

famine

an extreme shortage of food, which leads to massive starvation in a population; often associated with crop failures, war, and political unrest.

Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (formely food stamp program)

Electronic Benefit transfer (debt) cards are given to purchase food at grocery stores; the amount is based of size of household and income

the emergency food assitance program (TEFAP)

provides nutrition assistance to needy Americans through distribution of USDA food commodies

commodity supplemental food program

USDA surplus foods are distrubuted to country agencies; not found in all states; may be based on nutritional risk

special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants and children (WIC)

coupons are given to purchase milk, cheese, fruit juice, cereal, infant formula, and other specific food items at grocery stores; including nutrition education components. Includes new farmers markety nutrition program

National school lunch program

free or reduced price lunch is distrubuted by the school; meal follows USDA pattern based on MyPyramid; cost for the child depends on family income.

school breakfast program

free or reduced price breakfast is distributed by school

child and adult care food program

reimbursment is given for meals supplied to children at the site;

congregate meals for the elderly

free noon meal if furnished at site

home delivered meals

noon meal is delievered at no cost or for a donation 5 days a week.

summer food service program

free, nutritious meals and snacks are given to children in a low income area at a central site, such as school or community center during long school vacations

food distribution program on indian reservations

alternative to supplemental nutrition assistance program, distribution of monthly food packages

fresh fruit and vegetable program

provides free fresh fruits and vegetavles to increase their consumption to and combat childhood obesity

food desert

an area were 33% or 500 people, live more than a mile from a grocery store in an urban area or more than 10 miles away in a rural area

Infrastructure

the basic framework of a system of organization. for a society, this includes roads, bridges, telephones and other basic technologies

Human immunodefiency virus

the virus that leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)

acquired immune deficiency syndrome

a disorder in which a virus (HIV) infects specific types of immune system cells. this leaves the person with reduces immune function and in turn defenseless against numberous infections agents' typically contributes to a peersons death

sustainable development

economic growth that will stimulaneously reduce poverty, protect the enviornment, and preserve natural capital

gender and development approach

understanding the roles and responsbilities of both men and women in the process of sustainable development

sustainable agruculture

agricultural system that provides a secure living for farm families; maintains the natural environment and resources; supports the rural communities; and offers respect and fair treatment to all involved; from farm workers to consumers to the animals raised for food

biotechnology

a collection of processes that involves the use of biological systems for altering and ideally improving the characteristics of plants, animals and other forms of life

genetic engineering

malipulation of the genetic makeup of any organism with recombinant DNA technology

recombiant DNA technology

a test tube technology that rearranges DNA sequences in an organism by cutting the DNA, adding or deleting a DNA squence, and rejoing the DNA molecule with a series of enzymes

genetically modified organism

any organism created by genetic engineering

transgenic

organism that contains genese originally present in another organism

embryo

in humans, the developing offspring in utero from about the beginning of the third week to the end of the eighth week after conception

ovum

the egg cell from which a fetus eventually develops if the egg is fertilized by a sperm cell

fetus

the developing life form from about the beginning of the ninth week after conception until birth

placenta

an organ that forms in the uterus in pregnant women. through this organ, oxygen and nutrients from the mothers blood are transferred to the fetus and fetal wastes are removed. the placenta also releaes hormones that maintain the state of pregnancy

zygote

the fertilized ovum; the cell resulting from the union of an egg cell (ovum) an sperm until it divides

trimesters

three 13-14 to 14 week periods into which the normal pregnacy (the length of a normal pregnancy is about 40 weeks, measured from the first day of the womans last menstrual period) is divided somewhat abritraily for purposes of discussion and analysis. development of the offspring, is continous through pregnancy, with no specific physiological markers demarcating the transition from one trimester to the next

spontaneous abortion

cessation of pregnancy and expulsion of the embryo or nonviable fetus prior to 20 weeks gestation. this is the result of natural causes, such as a gentic or developmental problem; also called miscarriage

lactation

the period of milk secretion following pregnancy; typically called breastfeeding

gestation

the period of intrauterine development of offspring; from conception to birth; in humans, gestation lasts for about 40 weeks after the womans previous menstrual period

low birth weight

referring to any infant weighing less than 2.5 kilograms (5.5 pounds) at birth; most commonly results from preterm birth

preterm

an infant born before 37 weeks of gestation; also known as premature

small for gestational age

referring to an infants who weigh less than the expected weight for their length of gestation. this correspons to less than 2.5 kilograms (5.5 pounds) in a full term pregnancy. a preferm infant who is also SGA will most likely develop some medical complications

pica

the practice of eating nonfood items, such as dirt, laundry starch or clay

physiological anemia

the normal increase in blood volume in pregnancy that dilutes the concentration of red blood cells, resulting in anemia; also called hemodilution

gestational diabetes

a high blood glucose concentration that develops during pregnancy and returns to normal after bith; one cause is the placental production of hormones that antagonzie the regulation of blood glucose by insulin

pregnancy induced hypertension

a serious disorder than can include high blood pressure, kindey failure, convulsions, and even death of the mother and fetus. its exact cause is not known. an adequate diet and prenatal care may prevent this disorder or limit its severty. mild cases are known as preeclampsia; more severe cases are called eclampsia

lobules

saclike structures in the breat that store milk

prolactin

a hormone secreted by the pitutary glands that stimulates the synthhesis of milk in the breast

oxytocin

a hormone secreted by the pituitary glands. it causes contraction of the muscle like cells surrounding the ducts of the breasts and the smooth muscle of the uterus

colostrum

the first fluid secreted by the breast during late pregnancy and the first few days after birth. this thick fluid is rich in immmune factors and protein

lactobacillus bifidus factor

a protective factor in the colostrum that encourages growth of beneficial bacteria in the newborns intestines

atophic disease

condition resulting from an inappropraite immune response, such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, food allergies or ecxema

teratogen

a substance that may cause or increase the risk of a birth defect.

when is the best time to prepare for pregnancy

before conception even occurs

What stages are for a successful pregnancy

healthy body weight, avoiding toxic agents, correcting nutritional deficiencies and controlling existing medical conditions

pregnancy is divided into what

three trimesters of 13 to 14 weeks

the first trimester is characterized by what

a rapid increase in cell number as the zygote grows to be an embryo, then a fetus. the growing organism is most susceptible to damage from exposure to toxic agents or nutrient deficiencies.

by the start of the second trimester

the organs and limbs have formed and will continue to grow and develop

the third trimester

is marked by rapid fetal growth and storage of nutrients in preparation for life outside the womb

Pregnancy success is defined as what

1. Gestation longer than 37 weeks. 2. Birth weight greater than 5.5 pounds (2.5 kilograms)

Factors that predict pregnancy success are what

early and regular prenatal care, maternal age within the range of 20 to 25 years and adequate nutrition

factors that contribute to poor pregnancy are

inadequate prenantal care, obesity, underweight, teenage pregnacy, smoking, alcohol consumption, use of certain prescription medications, and all illicit drugs, inadequate nutrition, heavy caffeine use and various infections such as listerioosis

Women with a healthy prepregnancy BMI (18.5 to 24. 9), total weight gain should be what

within range of 25 to 35 pounds; undernutrition women and those carrying multiple fetuses should gain more; overweight and obese women should gain less. During the first trimester, she need not to increase diet quanity, the woman should focus on diet quality to meet increased requirements for protein, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids, fiber, water, and vitamins and minerals.

A pregnant women typically needs an addition how many kcal per day during the second and third trimester

350 t0 450 kcal per day

for the infant, the advantages of breastfeeding over formula feeding are what

1. fewer intestinal, respiratory and ear infections
2. fewer allergies
3. food intolerance

benefits for the mother for breastfeeding are

1. reduced risk for certain cancers
2. earlier return to prepregancy weight.

the fetus is most susceptible to damage from nutrient deficiencies; teratogens; and use of certain medications, alcohol and illict drugs during

the first trimester

an infant born at 38 weeks gestation weighing 5.0 pounds can be described as

LBW and SGA

If a woman is 5'2 and weights 150 pounds before becoming pregnant, how much weight should she gain during pregnancy

15 to 25 pounds ( 7 to 11.5 kilograms)

Increased carbohydrates needs during pregnancy are set to

prevent ketosis

which of the following is best paired with an iron supplement during pregnancy

Orange juice

A food plan for a woman in the third trimester of pregnancy differs from her prepregancy diet in that

fluid needs are higher, additional solid fats and added sugars are allowed, there are more servings from the grain group

consuming one cup of coffee per day is associated with

None of the abovr

Which of the following may help to alleviate nausea during pregnancy

Postponing use or iron supplements until the second trimester

which of the following conditions medically prevents a woman from breastfeeding her infant

infants are galactosemia

physiologically, milk production reguires __ kcal per day

800 kcal per day

undernutrition

failing health that results from a long standing dietary intake that is not enough to meet nutritional needs

percentile

classification of a measurement of a unit into divisions of 100 units

allergy

a hypersensitive immune response that occurs when immune bodies produced by us react with a protein we senese as foreign (as an antigen)

early childhood caries

tooth decay that results from formula or juice (and even human milk) bathing the teeth as the child sleeps with a bottle in his or her mouth. the upper teeth is mostly affected as the lower teeth are protected by the tongue; formerly called nursing bottle syndrom and baby bottle tooth decay

menarche

the onset of menstration. menarche usually occurs around age 13. 2 or 3 years after the first signs of puberty start to appear

anaphylatic shock

a severe allergic response that results in lowered blood pressure and respiratory and gastrointestinal distres. this can be fatal

antigen

any substance that induces a state of senesitivity or resistance to microogranisms to toxic substances after a lag period; substance that stimulates a specific aspect of the immune system

elimination diet

a restrictive diet that systematically tests foods that may cause an allergic respose by first eliminating them for one to two weeks and then adding them back, one at a time

inadequate intake of which of the following results in poor growth

calories. iron and zinc

an 11 month old girl who weights 19 pounds needs app. ___ kcal per day

690

introduction of cows milk should be delayed until 12 months of age because

contains too much protein

you are trying to introduce an apple and blueberry puree to a seven month old infant and she rejects it. you should

offer the food again on another day

milk is a nutrient dense source of all of the following except

iron

a gluten free, casein free diet may be used to treat

autism

to ensure adequate vitamin and mineral intake for a picky eater,

provide a fortified breakfast cereal

for treatment of overweight, school age children you should

exercise for 60 mins per day or more

to prevailing dietary habits of north american teenagers contribute to all of the following except

acne

your niece breaks out in hives and feels nauseous after eating a salad containg mago. she probalbly has a food

allergy

agin

time dependent physical and physicological change in body structure and function that occurs normally and progressively throught adulthood as humans mature and become older

reserve capacity

the extent to which an organ can preserve essentially normal function despite decreasing cell number or cell activity

kidney nephrons

the units of kidney cells that filter wastes from the bloodstream and deposit them into the urine

glycosylation

the process by which glucose attaches to glycates other compounds such as proteins

compression of morbidity

delay of the onset of disabilities caused by chronic disease

life span

the potential oldest age a person can reach

life expectancy

the average length of life for a given group of people born in a specific year

menopause

cessation of menses in women, usually start at age 50

ostomy

sugically created short circuit in intestinal flow where the end point usually opens from the abdominal cavity rather than the anus

sarcopenia

in general, loss of muscle tissue. among older adults this loss of lean mass increases their risk of illness and death

sarcopenic obesity

loss of muscle mass accompained by gains in fat mass

ethanol

chemical term for the form of alcohol found in alcoholic bevarages

alcohol dehydrogenase

an enzyme used in alcohol metabolism that converts alcohol into acetaldehyde

acetaldehyde dehydrogenase

an enzyme used in ethanol metabolism that eventually converts acetaldehyde into carbon dioxide and water

alcohol abuse

excessive alcohol consumption that leads to severe alcohol related health and problems,

cirrhosis

loss of cuntioning liver cells, are replaced by nonfunctioning connective tissue, any substance that posions liver cells can lead t ocirrhosis.

alcohol dependence

the person experiences repeated alcohol related difficulties, inability to control use, spending great deal of time associated with alcohol used, continued use of alcohol dispite physical, etc

alcoholism

as defined by the american medical association, illness characterized by significat impairment direclty related to persistend and excessive use of alochol

tumor

mass of cells may be cancerous (malignant) or noncanerous (benign)

bengign

noncancerous; tumors that do not spread

maligant

malcious; in reference to a tumor, property of spreading locally and to distant sites

metastasize

the spreading of disease from one part of the body to another, even to parts of the body that are remote from site of original tumor

endometrium

the membrane that lines the inside of the uters. increases in thickness during the menstrual cycle until ovulation occurs.

nitrosamine

carcinogen formed from nitrates and breakdown products of amino acidsl can lead to stomach cancer

among the older population of the U.S. that age of the fastest growing segment is __ years

85+

the diets of adults tend to be low in___

vitamin e, calcium and fiber

the reason the incidence of obesity increases with age is that

the basal metabolism rate decreases with age, physical activity often decreases with age and energy intake exceeds energy expenditure

the immune system becomes less efficieny with age, s oits especially important to consume adequate __ and __ nutrients that contribute to immune function

protein, zinc

which of the following accurately portrays a theory about the causes of aging

excess free radicals damage cell components

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