Geography Final Exam

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Which of the following is correct regarding the snowline?

It increases in elevation with increasing latitude.
It occurs at approximately the same elevation at all latitudes because the environmental lapse rate is approximately the same at all latitudes.
It decreases in elevation with increasing latitude.

It decreases in elevation with increasing latitude

Approximately what percentage of the world's freshwater is frozen?

10 percent
30 percent
50 percent
77 percent

77 percent

The bulk of ice on Earth is in

floating ice shelves and packs.
European and Asian mountain ranges.
North America, specifically Alaska.
Greenland and Antarctica.

Greenland and Antarctica.

Ice loss from alpine glaciers is contributing how much to global sea level rise?

11%
25%
50%
75%

25%

A general term for a mass of perennial ice, resting on land or floating shelf-like in the sea adjacent to land is

moraine.
an iceberg.
a glacier.
the snowline.

a glacier.

Alpine glaciers include all of the following except

a cirque glacier.
a valley glacier.
a mountain glacier.
an ice cap.

an ice cap.

Which of the following is correct regarding valley glaciers?

They may range in length from 100 m (325 ft.) to 100 km (62 mi.).
The snowfield sources for these glaciers are usually found right at the snowline.
They remain stationary and do not move.
They occur in an unconfined environment - like an open plain.

They may range in length from 100 m (325 ft.) to 100 km (62 mi.).

The process of calving produces
The process of calving produces
nunataks.
roche moutonné.
baby steers.
moraines.
icebergs.

icebergs.

A glacier that is confined in a bowl-shaped recess is called a
A glacier that is confined in a bowl-shaped recess is called a
mountain glacier.
piedmont glacier.
cirque glacier.
valley glacier.

cirque glacier.

A valley glacier that extends beyond the confines of its valley and coalesces with other valley glaciers along the base of a mountain range is termed
A valley glacier that extends beyond the confines of its valley and coalesces with other valley glaciers along the base of a mountain range is termed
a valley glacier.
an ice field.
a piedmont glacier.
a cirque glacier.

a Piedmont glacier.

A continuous mass of ice covering a large landmass is known as a
A continuous mass of ice covering a large landmass is known as a
continental glacier.
tidal glacier.
mountain glacier.
valley glacier.

continental glacier.

The type of glacier that dominates Greenland and Antarctica is
The type of glacier that dominates Greenland and Antarctica is
ice sheet.
piedmont glacier.
valley glacier.
ice field.

ice sheet.

Which of the following is not correctly matched?
Which of the following is not correctly matched?
ice cap - completely buries the underlying landscape, but covers less than 50,000 km2
ice cap - dome shape
ice sheet - isostatic depression of the crust
ice field - more than 10,000 feet thick
ice field - nunataks visible

ice field - more than 10,000 feet thick

In terms of areal extent, which of the following sequences is in order from most to least area covered?
In terms of areal extent, which of the following sequences is in order from most to least area covered?
ice field, ice sheet, ice cap
ice sheet, ice field, ice cap
ice sheet, valley glacier, piedmont glacier
ice sheet, ice cap, icefield

ice sheet, ice cap, icefield

Continuous ice sheets, ice caps, and ice fields are drained on their periphery by

outlet glaciers.
mountain glaciers.
valley glaciers.
piedmont glaciers.

outlet glaciers.

Glacial ice is
generally less dense than snow and firn.
essentially the same as snow.
made of metamorphic rock.
formed after a slow transformation process that may take a thousand years in Antarctica.

formed after a slow transformation process that may take a thousand years in Antarctica.

Melting and refreezing of snow acts to __________ ice density and __________ the sphericity (roundness) of the original snowflakes.
increase; decrease
increase; increase
decrease; increase
decrease; decrease

increase; increase

Why, specifically, is glacial ice analogous to a metamorphic rock?
It has a crystalline structure.
It forms as a result of recrystallization caused by pressure.
It is solid.
It has a definite chemical composition.

It forms as a result of recrystallization caused by pressure.

Snow that has a compact, granular structure is known as
firn.
snowflakes.
glacial ice.
meta-ice.

firn.

The transformation of snow into glacial ice in Antarctica takes __________ than in midlatitude alpine glaciers because __________.
longer; less melting and refreezing occurs in Antarctica
less time; more snow falls each year in polar regions
less time; less melting and refreezing occurs in the midlatitudes
longer; less snow falls per year in polar regions
longer; less snow falls per year in polar regions and less melting and refreezing occurs in Antarctica

longer; less snow falls per year in polar regions and less melting and refreezing occurs in Antarctica

Relative to glacial mass balance, which of the following is incorrect?
A positive net balance occurs during a cold period, and a negative net balance occurs during a warm period.
Glacial mass is reduced by a combination of processes called ablation.
Glacial mass is reduced by evaporation, sublimation, and deflation.
Worldwide, most glaciers are showing marked net increase in mass at present.

Worldwide, most glaciers are showing marked net increase in mass at present.

A visible snowline across the surface of a glacier is called
an equilibrium line.
a firn line.
a medial moraine.
the ice line.

a firn line.

The opposite of the accumulation zone in a glacier is the
abrasion zone.
equilibrium line.
snow and firn area.
ablation zone.

ablation zone.

The zone where positive gains end and losses begin in the glacial mass balance is called
an equilibrium line.
medial moraine.
firn line.
the ice field line.

an equilibrium line.

Which of the following is incorrectly matched?
melting - zone of ablation
sublimation - zone of ablation
net mass loss - equilibrium line
firn - zone of mass accumulation

net mass loss - equilibrium line

Which of the following is correct regarding glacial movement?
The basal ice layer does not move downslope.
The rate of surface motion is usually identical to the basal slip rate.
The internal flow just below the surface is greater than the basal flow.
All glaciers move just a few centimeters per year.

The internal flow just below the surface is greater than the basal flow.

Which of the following is incorrectly matched?
glacial ice - a metamorphic version of snow and firn
ice regelation - the melting and refreezing of basal ice
crevasses - vertical cracks from friction or tension
All of these are correctly matched.

All of these are correctly matched.

Because the upper regions of a glacier flow __________ than the base of the glacier, the upper part of the glacier tends to be __________.
slower; compressed
faster; compressed
slower; stretched
faster; stretched

faster; stretched

Which of the following is not generally correct regarding the basal layer of a glacier?
Crevasses form in this region of the glacier.
It tends to flow more slowly than the overlying parts of the glacier.
It contains more debris than other parts of the glacier.
It can extend tens of meters above the ground surface.

Crevasses form in this region of the glacier.

Small bedrock protrusions at the base of a glacier are often overrun by a process known as __________, which occurs because __________.
regelation; ice melts when it is sufficiently compressed
ablation; ice melts when it is sufficiently compressed
ice plucking; ice deforms when it is sufficiently compressed
regelation; ice deforms when it is subjected to pressure
ablation; ice deforms when it is subjected to pressure

regelation; ice melts when it is sufficiently compressed

Crevasses usually form as a result of
ablation.
regelation.
deposition.
tensional forces.

tensional forces.

Glacier surges may be associated with
water pressure.
mass imbalance.
ice quakes.
all of these.
only mass imbalance and water pressure

all of these.

During a glacier surge, a glacier may move forward at a speed of up to
tens of meters per day.
1 cm per day.
1 meter per day.
a few kilometers per hour.

tens of meters per day.

All of the following represent forms of glacial erosion except
rock pieces freezing to the basal layers of the glacier.
abrasion.
ablation.
plucking.

ablation.

Glacial polish results from
rotation of ice about a vertical axis.
regelation.
ice plucking.
abrasion.

abrasion.

The rock material that is trapped within a glacier that is not moving
moves by the process of basal sliding.
moves as a result of the deformation of ice.
moves by the process of regelation.
does not move because the glacier does not move.

moves as a result of the deformation of ice.

Which of the following are erosional landforms created by alpine glaciation?
drumlins
till plains
cols and horns
eskers

cols and horns

Horns and cirques are typical features in
unsorted glacial deposits left by continental glaciers.
loess deposits that have been heavily sculpted by wind action.
a mountain range that was sculpted by alpine glaciers.
a till plain deposited by continental glaciers.

a mountain range that was sculpted by alpine glaciers.

Unlike a stream-cut valley that assumes a characteristic __________-shape, a glacially-carved valley evidences a characteristic __________-shape.
V; U
flat; rounded
steep; shallow
U; V

V; U

When two valley glaciers join together, they form a __________ at the point at which they merge.
recessional moraine
terminal moraine
till plain
medial moraine

medial moraine

Which of the following is a depositional landform created by glaciation?
U-shaped valleys
horns
cols
stratified drift

stratified drift

The general term for all glacial deposits is
till.
alluvium.
glacial drift.
outwash.

glacial drift.

Drowned glacial valleys are known as
kettle holes.
tarns.
paternoster lakes.
fjords.

fjords.

Roches moutonnées form as a result of
abrasion on the stoss side and ice plucking on the lee side of a rocky outcrop.
ice plucking on both the stoss and lee side of a rocky outcrop.
ice plucking on the stoss side and abrasion on the lee side of a rocky outcrop.
abrasion on both the stoss (upstream) and lee (downstream) side of a rocky outcrop.
none of these

abrasion on the stoss side and ice plucking on the lee side of a rocky outcrop.

Which of the following would not be found in an alpine glacial valley?
hanging valleys
esker
waterfalls
paternoster lakes

esker

Unsorted and unstratified glacial deposits (not landforms) are called
till.
alluvium.
moraine.
outwash.

till.

The material deposited behind a terminal moraine (i.e., the side on which the ice was located) forms a(n) __________, whereas that deposited in front of the terminal moraine forms a(n) __________.
outwash plain; till plain
esker; drumlin field
till plain; outwash plain
drumlin field; esker

till plain; outwash plain

Which of the following is not a depositional feature formed by, or in association with, a continental glacier?
lateral moraine
kame
outwash plain
unstratified till
esker

lateral moraine

Which of the following is not associated with a glacial outwash plain?
drumlin
kettle
stratified material
glacio-fluvial sediments

drumlin

The presence of stratified, or sorted, glacial sediment indicates that
it was deposited as till by a continental glacier.
it was deposited by medial moraines.
it was deposited by glacial meltwater.
it was deposited in terminal moraines by continental glaciers.

it was deposited by glacial meltwater.

Soil is

weathered rock.
a dynamic, natural body.
a physical, geological product.
composed only of mineral particles.

a dynamic, natural body.

The surface of the Moon is covered with loose rock debris and fine particles. Given this, and what you know about the Moon, the surface material

could be considered a soil because regolith is present.
could be considered a soil because physical weathering processes occur.
could not be considered a soil because no organic matter is present and no organic processes occur.
could be considered a soil because regolith is present and because physical weathering processes occur.

could not be considered a soil because no organic matter is present and no organic processes occur.

Which of the following is correct regarding soil?

Soil is a dynamic natural body composed of both mineral and organic matter.
Soil science is called geomorphology.
Soil is an inorganic by-product of geological processes.
Soil is composed of mineral matter only.

Soil is a dynamic natural body composed of both mineral and organic matter.

The physical and chemical weathering of the upper lithosphere produces

materials from which soils can develop which have properties different than those of their source materials.
soil.
soil fertility.
true soil with no further organic activity.

materials from which soils can develop which have properties different than those of their source materials.

The science that deals with the origin, classification, and distribution of soils is known as __________, whereas the science that deals with soil as a medium for plant growth is called __________.

pedology; edaphology
edaphology; pedology
pedology; geomorphology
geomorphology; edaphology

pedology; edaphology

Which of the following is not correct regarding soils?

Their properties are affected by the type of rock from which they form.
Soils rich in organic matter are usually dark in color.
Older soils usually have fewer horizons than younger soils.
Their development is affected by climate and organisms.
They usually require centuries or millennia to form.

Older soils usually have fewer horizons than younger soils.

The basic sampling unit in soil surveys is called

a horizon.
a pedon.
the A horizon.
a polypedon.

a pedon.

A mixture of decomposed organic matter in soil that is usually dark in color is called

polypedon.
humus.
mineral matter.
regolith.

humus.

What material in the soil serves a similar role to that of clay because of its ion exchange capacity, ability to store water, and ability to bind particles together?

caliche
plinthite
calcium carbonate
humus

humus

Which of the following is correct regarding soil color?

Dark soils always indicate high organic content.
For consistency of description, a soil color chart is employed by soil scientists.
Color does not reflect composition or chemical makeup.
Soil color is restricted to the top horizon of the soil pedon.

For consistency of description, a soil color chart is employed by soil scientists.

Soil separates refer to

differing soil colors in a pedon.
the larger pebbles, gravels, and cobbles.
individual mineral particles, such as sand, silt, and clay.
the different soil horizons.

individual mineral particles, such as sand, silt, and clay.

Soil structure can be defined by which of the following?

crumb or granular
platy peds
blocky
prismatic
All of these designate soil structure.

All of these designate soil structure.

A particle .07 mm in diameter would be classified as

cobble.
sand.
silt.
clay.

sand.

Texture refers to __________, whereas structure refers to __________.

the aggregation of soil particles into "dirt clods"; soil particle size
soil productivity; soil fertility
soil particle size; the aggregation of soil particles into "dirt clods"
soil fertility; soil productivity

soil particle size; the aggregation of soil particles into "dirt clods"

Rounded peds have __________ space between them than other peds, and are therefore __________.

more; better for plant growth
more; worse for plant growth
less; worse for plant growth
less; better for plant growth

more; better for plant growth

Ped formation benefits soils because it enhances

soil texture.
porosity.
permeability.
porosity and permeability.

porosity and permeability.

Soil consistency refers to

the soil's ability to consistently maintain a given level of soil moisture.
the soil's resistance to breaking and manipulation under different moisture conditions.
the uniformity of particle size.
the uniformity of ped types.

the soil's resistance to breaking and manipulation under different moisture conditions.

Which of the following characteristics of soil is important to porosity, permeability, and soil-moisture storage capacity?

pore locations between or within peds
pore orientation
continuity of pores
All of these factors are correct.

All of these factors are correct.

Which of the following is not correct regarding the soil atmosphere?

It contains far more nitrogen than the atmosphere.
It contains less oxygen that the atmosphere.
It contains more carbon dioxide than the atmosphere.
None of the above are true.

It contains far more nitrogen than the atmosphere.

The concentration of carbon dioxide in the soil is __________ that of the atmosphere because __________.

greater than; carbon dioxide seeps out of the underlying regolith
greater than; roots and organisms respire
less than; virtually all the carbon dioxide in the soil combines with water to form carbonic acid
less than; plants use carbon dioxide for photosynthesis

greater than; roots and organisms respire

A cation has a __________ charge, and an anion has a __________ charge.

neutral; positive
negative; positive
positive; negative
positive; neutral

positive; negative

Important soil components that are involved in the retention of ions formed by clay and organic particles are called

separates.
peds.
colloids.
pH holders.

colloids.

Soil colloids (clay particles) have __________ charges on their surfaces which attract __________ from the soil solution.

positive; cations
negative; anions
negative; cations
positive; anions

negative; cations

The ability of certain soil particles to transfer mineral ions between their surfaces and the soil solution is referred to as

colloidal action.
cation-exchange capacity.
soil acidity.
soil alkalinity.

cation-exchange capacity.

Which of the following refers to a low pH condition?

acidic
9.5 pH
basic, with bases
alkaline

acidic

The uplift of mountains is caused by

aggradation.
denudation.
exogenic forces.
endogenic processes.

endogenic processes.

The form that a landscape exhibits results from a balance between

endogenic and exogenic processes.
forces acting on the landscape.
inputs and outputs of matter and energy.
all of the above.
forces acting on the landscape and endogenic and exogenic processes.

all of the above.

Uplift of the landscape creates __________ energy which is converted to __________ energy when materials begin to move downslope.

potential; chemical
kinetic; potential
kinetic; chemical
potential; kinetic

potential; kinetic

Because the climate of a region slowly changes and tectonic adjustments slowly occur, the landscape

is constantly at a threshold condition.
is continuously adjusting to new conditions that develop.
is usually in a state of dynamic equilibrium.
all of the above
is continuously adjusting, and in a state of dynamic equilibrium, but not constantly at a threshold.

is continuously adjusting, and in a state of dynamic equilibrium, but not constantly at a threshold.

Which of the following is correct regarding joints?

Joints are small, localized fault planes along which movement occurs.
Joints enhance the rate of weathering.
Joints enable more water to move through the ground.
All of these are true.
Joints enable more water to move through the ground and enhance the rate of weathering.

Joints enable more water to move through the ground and enhance the rate of weathering.

You would expect only slight physical and chemical weathering under conditions of

higher temperatures and lower precipitation.
temperatures below freezing.
lower mean annual rainfall and temperatures.
extreme cold and high precipitation.

higher temperatures and lower precipitation.

In most areas, the upper surface of bedrock is partially weathered to broken-up rock called

sediment.
regolith.
parent rock.
bedrock.

regolith.

When rock is broken and disintegrated without dissolving, the process in operation is

chemical weathering.
physical weathering.
hydrolysis.
carbonation.

physical weathering.

Hydration involves

a chemical weathering process.
frost action.
the action of wind.
swelling and stress within a rock as it absorbs water.

swelling and stress within a rock as it absorbs water

Which of the following weathering processes does not involve water?

hydrolysis
hydration
crystallization
pressure-release jointing
carbonation

pressure-release jointing

Exfoliation occurs because

overlying rock is removed, thereby allowing the underlying rock mass to expand and fracture.
water combines with minerals and increases their size, thereby causing surrounding minerals to pop out of the rock matrix.
water freezes in joints and expands.
All of these are possible causes of exfoliation.

overlying rock is removed, thereby allowing the underlying rock mass to expand and fracture.

Which of the following are the principal active agents involved in chemical weathering?

oxygen, silicon, aluminum
water, oxygen, carbon dioxide
nitrogen, oxygen, argon
magnesium, water, limestone

water, oxygen, carbon dioxide

An example of chemical weathering is

the breakdown of rocks by freezing and thawing.
karst topography.
the wearing away of a stream bank by a river.
exfoliation.

karst topography.

Hydrolysis involves

water reacting with minerals.
water being added to a mineral leading to swelling and stress in rock.
hydraulic action of water between rocks.
no actual chemical change in minerals.

water reacting with minerals

The yellow-red stains that occur on some rock surfaces are the result of __________ which is a form of __________ weathering.

oxidation; chemical
hydration; physical
hydration; chemical
oxidation; physical
solution; chemical

oxidation; chemical

Karst topography is formed primarily by

exfoliation and hydration.
carbonation and solution.
oxidation and hydrolysis.
mass wasting processes.

carbonation and solution.

Concrete that is buried below the ground will usually weather faster than that above ground. This is because

water is more abundant in the soil.
carbonic acid solution attacks the concrete.
exfoliation is more likely to occur below ground level.
all of the above are true.
carbonic acid solution attacks the concrete and water is more abundant in the soil.

carbonic acid solution attacks the concrete and water is more abundant in the soil.

Which of the following is not necessary for well-developed karst to develop?

arid conditions
high proportion of calcium carbonate in the rock
vegetation
joints in rock of low permeability

arid conditions

Plants are important to the development of karst primarily because

the decay of large roots below the surface produces cavities which eventually enlarge to form caves.
openings adjacent to their roots serve as microchannels that allow water to enter the rock.
they produce acids.
None of the above - plants play no role in the development of karst.

they produce acids.

The material from which stalactites and other cave formations develop is derived from

calcite that was dissolved from the overlying rock as groundwater flowed through it and then precipitated when the water evaporated.
various types of gases in the cave, which sublimate to form a solid.
halite that was dissolved from the overlying rock as groundwater flowed through it and then precipitated when the water evaporated.
calcite that sublimates from air trapped within the cave when temperatures fall below a certain level - about -10°C.
phosphates that were carried into the cave by groundwater and then precipitated as the groundwater evaporated.

calcite that was dissolved from the overlying rock as groundwater flowed through it and then precipitated when the water evaporated.

The hills which form cockpit karst are separated from one another by

stalactites.
river floodplains.
grabens.
sinkholes.

sinkholes.

All unit movement of materials propelled and controlled by gravity are referred to as

mass movements.
slides.
lahars.
downslope flows.

mass movements.

The steepness of a slope made of loose material is called the

height of the slope.
the speed of the particles.
angle of repose.
mass movement gradient.

angle of repose.

The presence of talus slopes indicates that __________ occur and that the area near them is __________ for real estate development.

rock falls; safe
rock falls; unsafe
planar slides; unsafe
planar slides; safe
earthflows; unsafe

rock falls; unsafe

Landslides occur when

a threshold is reached.
driving forces exceed resisting forces.
the internal friction is overcome by the force of gravity.
the internal friction is overcome by the force of gravity and driving forces exceed resisting forces.
All of these are correct.

All of these are correct.

Vertical elevation differences in a local landscape are referred to as

crust.
topography.
relief.
an order of relief.

relief.

The undulating form that gives Earth's surface its character and general configuration is called

crust.
relief.
an order of relief.
topography.

topography.

Approximately what percentage of Earth's surface is exposed above sea level?

18 percent
29 percent
49 percent
62 percent

29 percent

The average elevation of the depth of the oceans is

-2070 m (-6790 ft.).
100 m (325 ft.).
-3800 m (-12,470 ft.).
875 m (2870 ft.).

-3800 m (-12,470 ft.).

A hypsographic curve is

a graph that shows the change in temperature with depth below the surface of the ocean floor.
a graph that shows the change in temperature with depth below the surface of a continent.
a graph that shows Earth is of relatively high relief.
a graph that shows Earth's relief is great when compared to its diameter.
a generalized curve showing Earth's surface by area and elevation in relation to sea level.

a generalized curve showing Earth's surface by area and elevation in relation to sea level.

The variety of surface features on Earth results from

weathering and erosion.
tectonic activity.
gravity.
All of these are correct.

All of these are correct.

Compared to oceanic crust, continental crust is

usually formed with less than 50 percent silica and is rich in iron and magnesium.
generally more complex in content and structure.
denser.
essentially composed of basalt.

generally more complex in content and structure.

The nucleus of old crystalline rock in each of the principal continental masses is called a

continental shield, or craton.
composite zone.
mountain mass.
basalt mass.

continental shield, or craton.

Which of the following is correct regarding magma formed from subduction along a continental-oceanic boundary?

Batholiths may form from the rising magma.
The magma results in more violent volcanic eruptions than magma derived directly from the aesthenosphere.
The magma has a higher silica content than magma formed from only oceanic crust.
All of the above may occur.
The magma has a higher silica content than magma formed from only oceanic crust and results in more violent volcanic eruptions than magma derived directly from the aesthenosphere.

All of the above may occur.

High mountains consisting of tightly folded and overthrust sedimentary rock layers, as well as metamorphic rocks, are formed

exclusively by magma intrusions.
during volcanic eruptions.
during plate collisions.
in continental rift zones.
along midocean ridges during seafloor spreading activity and are subsequently uplifted above sea level in response to isostatic processes.

during plate collisions.

Domes can be formed by

upwarping associated with plate collisions.
downwarping associated with plate collisions.
upwarping associated with magma movement (i.e., plutonic activity).
extinct volcanoes.

upwarping associated with magma movement (i.e., plutonic activity).

When rock strata are strained beyond their ability to remain an intact unit, displacement occurs in a process known as

broad warping.
faulting.
folding.
stressing.

faulting.

Normal faults are associated with

transcurrent forces.
plate convergence.
tensional forces.
compressional forces.

tensional forces.

Which of the following can lead to the formation of mountains?

plate collisions and volcanic activity
faulting
exposure of plutons by erosion of surrounding landscape
all of the above
plate collisions and volcanic activity and the exposure of plutons by erosion of surrounding landscape

all of the above

An area that is a seismic gap

has significant surface fracturing due to fault movement.
is lacking seismometers or other measuring devices.
is overdue for an earthquake, based on past earthquake frequency.
has had tectonic plates separate, leaving large cracks in the surface.

is overdue for an earthquake, based on past earthquake frequency.

Molten rock that pours forth on Earth's surface is called

intrusive.
lava.
magma.
metamorphic.

lava.

Volcanic activity generally does not occur

along sea-floor spreading centers.
around the perimeter of the Atlantic Ocean basin.
in association with hot spots over plumes in the mantle.
in the circum-Pacific belt.

around the perimeter of the Atlantic Ocean basin.

Explosive eruptions tend to build up

shield-shaped volcanoes.
many subsequent lava flows.
composite volcanoes.
plateau basalts.

composite volcanoes.

Pulverized rock and clastic materials ejected violently during an eruption are called

explosive debris.
cinders.
volcanic ash.
tephra, or pyroclastics.

tephra, or pyroclastics.

Which of the following statements about shield volcanoes is correct?

They form from mafic magma.
They are subject to violently explosive eruptions.
They occur in shield areas of Earth.
They consist of tremendous quantities of pyroclastics.

They form from mafic magma.

Which of the following is not the result of extrusive volcanic activity?

volcanic cone
batholith
lava flow
tephra

batholith

Volcanic activity located away from plate boundaries is associated with

hot spots.
rift zones.
subduction and melting of plates along collision zones.
all of the above.

hot spots.

A cinder cone is formed from relatively __________ viscosity magma with a __________ gas content.

low; high
high; low
high; high
low; low

low; high

Volcanoes formed from silica-rich magma

are associated with midocean ridges.
have gently sloping surfaces that give them the appearance of a shield.
are associated with rift zones.
are highly explosive and dangerous.

are highly explosive and dangerous.

The eventual catastrophic eruption of Mount Saint Helens was

not preceded by any physical activity.
within only a few days of the first earthquake.
a total surprise.
related to seafloor subduction at the west coast of North America.

related to seafloor subduction at the west coast of North America.

Tectonic forces

form sedimentary rock.
warp, fold, and uplift rock.
erode the surface of Earth.
control soil formation processes.

warp, fold, and uplift rock.

Earth's interior is

arranged with lighter elements toward the center and heavier elements toward the crust.
not subject to internal differentiation.
heated unevenly by the heat of radioactive decay.
equally dense throughout.

heated unevenly by the heat of radioactive decay.

Knowledge of Earth's interior is derived from

direct sampling of the interior using deep-test wells.
indirect evidence involving the analysis of seismic waves.
work in Earth's deepest caverns and caves.
historic and prehistoric records.

indirect evidence involving the analysis of seismic waves.

Which of the following gives the correct sequence of layers in Earth, from the surface to the center?

crust, core, lower mantle, aesthenosphere
aesthenosphere, lower mantle, crust, core
crust, aesthenosphere, lower mantle, core
crust, lower mantle, aesthenosphere, core

crust, aesthenosphere, lower mantle, core

Which of the following can occur when seismic waves encounter a layer in Earth's interior?

Their speed can change.
They can be absorbed.
They can be reflected or refracted.
All of the above can occur, depending upon the nature of the layer.
none of these-seismic waves cannot penetrate below the crust of Earth

All of the above can occur, depending upon the nature of the layer.

Which of the following is incorrect regarding Earth's inner core?

It is the source of Earth's magnetic field.
It has a density of 13.5 grams per cm3.
It is solid iron in composition.
It is about 1230 km (760 mi.) thick.

It is the source of Earth's magnetic field.

Which of the following layers of Earth is liquid and is responsible for producing Earth's magnetic field?

inner core
aesthenosphere
outer core
lower mantle

outer core

Which of the following gives the correct sequence of layers in the mantle, from bottom to top?

aesthenosphere, mantle, upper mantle
mantle, aesthenosphere, upper mantle
mantle; upper mantle, aesthenosphere
upper mantle, aesthenosphere, mantle

mantle; upper mantle, aesthenosphere

Which of the following is correct regarding the aesthenosphere?

It carries the lithospheric plates.
It contains pockets of increased heat.
It flows.
All of the above are true.
None of the above are true.

All of the above are true.

The density of material below the Moho is __________ that above it.

the same as
less than
greater than

greater than

The boundary between the crust and the rest of the lithospheric upper mantle is a discontinuity known as the

mantle.
Moho.
lithospheric layer.
Gutenberg.

Moho.

Earth's crust is roughly made up of

strong, unbroken material.
a brittle material that does not move.
at least 14 plates capable of movement.
mantle and core material.

at least 14 plates capable of movement.

Which layer of the planet forms 80 percent of Earth's total volume, and has an average density of 4.5 grams per cm3?

core
oceanic crust
mantle
continental crust

mantle

The thickness of Earth's crust ranges from

the surface to an unknown depth.
70 km to 250 km (43 mi. to 155 mi.).
the surface down to 2900 km (1800 mi.).
5 km to 60 km (3 mi. to 37 mi.).

5 km to 60 km (3 mi. to 37 mi.).

The majority of Earth's crust is composed of __________ rock.

carbonate
metamorphic
igneous
sedimentary

igneous

Three types of rock-forming processes comprise the

tectonic cycle.
rock cycle.
hydrologic cycle.
mineral cycle.

rock cycle.

Heat energy and new materials are brought to the surface from the interior by the

tectonic cycle.
rock cycle.
hydrologic cycle.
mineral cycle.

tectonic cycle.

The three most abundant elements in Earth's crust are

oxygen, silicon, and aluminum.
iron, aluminum, and granite.
magnesium, potassium, and oxygen.
rock, water, and tectonics.

oxygen, silicon, and aluminum.

Which of the following is matched correctly?

sandstone - igneous
basalt - sedimentary
marble - metamorphic
granite - metamorphic

marble - metamorphic

The major rocks of Earth's crust are classified into principal types based on

mineral composition.
element composition.
relative and absolute locations.
three specific rock-forming processes; i.e., the manner in which they formed.

three specific rock-forming processes; i.e., the manner in which they formed.

What type of rock forms from the solidification of molten material?

sedimentary
metamorphic
igneous

igneous

What type of rock is derived from the bits and pieces of former rocks?

sedimentary
metamorphic
hydrothermal
igneous

sedimentary

Which type of rock is formed from cemented fragments of former rocks?

clastic sedimentary
hydrothermal sedimentary
extrusive igneous
metamorphic

clastic sedimentary

A rock transformed from any other rock through extreme heat and or pressure is referred to as

ancient.
metamorphic.
sedimentary.
igneous.

metamorphic.

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