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The root word civitas for Civilizations means

urban area of dwelling (living in cities)

Irrigation teqhniques such as dikes, canals and reservoirs, were a direct result of

agricultural innovation

What form of writing did the Maya use to record their rulers' accomplishments?

hieroglyphics

Refers to coercive power that is backed up by economic and military force

hard power

The hydraulic theory is an example of this kind of approach to explaining the rise of the State

ecological theory

Societies in which there is a presence of cities, social classes, and the state level of socio-political complexity are called

civilizations

The world's first civilization developed in ____ about 5,000 years ago.

Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq)

The Mayan cities of Tikal and Copán were governed by ____.

a hereditary ruling dynasty

Which of the following discoveries at an archaeological site are indicators of a strong centralized authority?

all of the above

Which is NOT true of so-called racial groups?

differences between groups is greater than within groups

The Inca civilization is unusual in that

they had no writing; instead, they used beaded, knotted ropes called quipu to keep records

In an archaeological excavation you come across a burial. Which of the following would indicate to you that the society in which the dead person once lived was socially stratified?

elaborate grave goods placed with the body

This enzyme enables the digestion of milk sugar (lactose)

lactase

Anthropologists emphasizing the significance of trade in the emergence of civilization note that in Mexico maize was grown throughout the region, but chilies were grown only in the highlands, cotton and beans were planted at intermediate elevations, certain animals lived in the lower valleys, and salt was found along the coast. From this they inferred that the society

had a centralized government to organize trade and redistribute goods

Which of the following problems are more likely to be found in a civilization as opposed to a food foraging band?

all of the above

For several hundred years, Tikal and Copán were able to sustain their ever-growing population. Then the pressure for food and land reached a critical point, and population growth was halted. At the same time, warfare with other cities was becoming increasingly destructive. All of this is marked archaeologically by which of the following?

all answers are correct

As pointed out in lecture and your textbook, ____ grew out of the need to know when to plant and harvest crops or to hold religious observances and to find exact bearings on voyages.

astronomy

Utensils, figurines, and personal possessions placed in the burial chamber with the deceased are collectively called ____ by archaeologists.

grave goods

Cultures are adaptive systems

that are constantly changing

A high retention of lactase is found in populations with a tradition of

dairy herding

The "thrifty genotype"

permits the efficient storage of fat for times of scarcity

In the article A Feckless Quest for the Basketball Gene, Jonathn Marks argues that

associating athletics and race is based on make-believe genetics and applied to naively-conceptualized groups of individuals

Athletic ability is based on all of the following except:

race

The primary function of melanin is

protecting the skin against solar radiation

In northern latitudes people have less melanin to promote the absorption of sunlight which aids in the manufacture of vitamin:

D

Which theory of state development argues that forceful leaders play a central role in the development of complex societies?

action theory

Throughout time, all large states have a tendency to:

break up/collapse

According to archaeologists, which is NOT a secondary characteristic of civilization?

astrology

In almost all parts of the world, nation-building:

results in the destruction of multi-ethnic societies

The term "modernization"

refers to the process of cultural and socioeconomic change whereby societies acquire the characteristics of industrialized societies

As modernization occurs, which of the following changes are likely to follow?

all answers are correct

Power that co-opts rather than coerces, changing behavior through attraction and persuasion:

soft power

Physical and psychological harm caused by economic systems is

structural violence

Which of the following is not considered one of the subprocesses of modernization?

ruralization

Disney movies that portray Western values to a global audience and influence behavior are an example of

soft power

Anthropologists are ____, meaning they take into account many interacting factors to understand the functioning of a complex whole.

holistic

_______ involves public policy for managing cultural diversity in a multi-ethnic society, stressing mutual respect and tolerance

multiculturalism

Which of the following expresses the negative consequences of global corporations on the international and domestic scenes?

Global corporations have become so powerful that they have been able to influence government decisions so that they benefit the company rather than the people.

Movement of the Mexican rural population into Mexico City in search of jobs is an example of

internal migration

____ is violence produced by social, political, and economic structures rather than by the unique and personal decisions of individuals.

Structural violence

The demand by "developed" countries for such items as coffee, tea, chocolate, bananas, and beef has led to ____.

pushing subsistence farmers off their land to make way for huge farms and ranches that specialize in cash crops

Pollution, although a worldwide consequence of certain agricultural and industrial activities, is more of a problem in ____ because chemicals that may be banned in richer nations can be used more easily.

poor countries

Examples of external migration include

All answers are correct

The advent of bronze metallurgy created advances in:

warfare and farming

The initial motive for the development of writing in Mesopotamia was for:

record-keeping of commerce

The first emperor of which civilization was buried with 7,000 life-size terra cotta figures?

China

In the Applied Anthropology section entitled ''Tell It to the Marines: Teaching Troops about Cultural Heritage'' why do military personnel take a class focusing on the cultural heritage of the area where they will be deployed?

to educate troops on the importance of protecting the evidence of past cultures

All of the following are true about race except:

scientists disagree on the number of biological human races that exist

The 18th-century Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus originally divided humans into subspecies based on:

geographic location

Because populations are genetically open:

no fixed racial groups exist

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