BIO FINAL

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Measurements of the amount of DNA per nucleus were taken on a large number of cells from a growing fungus. The measured DNA levels ranged from 3 to 6 picograms per nucleus. In which stage of the cell cycle did the nucleus contain 6 picograms of DNA?

G2

If cells in the process of dividing are subjected to colchicine, a drug that interferes with the formation of the spindle apparatus, at which stage will mitosis be arrested?

metaphase

Which of the following is true concerning cancer cells?

When they stop dividing, they do so at random points in the cell cycle; they are not subject to cell cycle controls; and they do not exhibit density-dependent inhibition when growing in culture.

A woman is found to have 47 chromosomes, including three X chromosomes. Which of the following describes her expected phenotype?

normal female

Which of the following provides some evidence that RNA probably evolved before DNA?

DNA polymerase uses primer, usually made of RNA.

Two plants are crossed, resulting in offspring with a 3:1 ratio for a particular trait. What does this suggest?

that the parents were both heterozygous for a single trait

Which of these statements is false?

At sexual maturity, ovaries and testes produce diploid gametes by meiosis.

Referring to a plant's sexual life cycle, which of the following terms describes the process that leads directly to the formation of gametes?

gametophyte mitosis

Use Figure 14.1 and the following description to answer the questions below.

In a particular plant, leaf color is controlled by gene locus D. Plants with at least one allele D have dark green leaves, and plants with the homozygous recessive dd genotype have light green leaves. A true-breeding dark-leaved plant is crossed with a light-leaved one, and the F1 offspring is allowed to self-pollinate. The predicted outcome of the F2 is diagrammed in the Punnett square shown in Figure 14.1, where 1, 2, 3, and 4 represent the genotypes corresponding to each box within the square. Which of the plants will be true-breeding? Answer

1 and 4 only

When Thomas Hunt Morgan crossed his red-eyed F1 generation flies to each other, the F2 generation included both red- and white-eyed flies. Remarkably, all the white-eyed flies were male. What was the explanation for this result?

The gene involved is on the X chromosome.

Mendel accounted for the observation that traits which had disappeared in the F1 generation reappeared in the F2 generation by proposing that

traits can be dominant or recessive, and the recessive traits were obscured by the dominant ones in the F1.

Which of the following best describes a karyotype?

a display of each of the chromosomes of a single cell

For a newly evolving protist, what would be the advantage of using eukaryote-like cell division rather than binary fission?

Cell division would allow for the orderly and efficient segregation of multiple linear chromosomes.

The following questions refer to the pedigree chart in Figure 14.2 for a family, some of whose members exhibit the dominant trait, W. Affected individuals are indicated by a dark square or circle.What is the genotype of individual II-5?

ww

Use Figure 14.1 and the following description to answer the questions below.

In a particular plant, leaf color is controlled by gene locus D. Plants with at least one allele D have dark green leaves, and plants with the homozygous recessive dd genotype have light green leaves. A true-breeding dark-leaved plant is crossed with a light-leaved one, and the F1 offspring is allowed to self-pollinate. The predicted outcome of the F2 is diagrammed in the Punnett square shown in Figure 14.1, where 1, 2, 3, and 4 represent the genotypes corresponding to each box within the square.


Figure 14.1


Which of the boxes correspond to plants with a heterozygous genotype?

2 and 3

Black fur in mice (B) is dominant to brown fur (b). Short tails (T) are dominant to long tails (t). What fraction of the progeny of crosses BbTt × BBtt will be expected to have black fur and long tails?

1/2

The nitrogenous base adenine is found in all members of which group?

ATP, RNA, and DNA

How many unique gametes could be produced through independent assortment by an individual with the genotype AaBbCCDdEE?

8

Use the following information to answer the questions below.

The lettered circle in Figure 12.1 shows a diploid nucleus with four chromosomes. There are two pairs of homologous chromosomes, one long and the other short. One haploid set is symbolized as black and the other haploid set is gray. The chromosomes in the unlettered circle have not yet replicated. Choose the correct chromosomal conditions for the following stages.


Figure 12.1


What is the correct chromosomal condition at the prometaphase of mitosis?

B

Where do the microtubules of the spindle originate during mitosis in both plant and animal cells?

centrosome

The individual with genotype AaBbCCDdEE can make many kinds of gametes. Which of the following is the major reason?

different possible alignments of chromosomes

Three genes at three loci are being mapped in a particular species. Each has two phenotypes, one of which is markedly different from the wild type. The unusual allele of the first gene is inherited with either of the others about 50% of the time. However, the unusual alleles of the other two genes are inherited together 14.4% of the time. Which of the following describes what is happening?

The first gene is assorting independently from the other two that are linked.

The human X and Y chromosomes

nclude genes that determine an individual's sex.

Which of the following variations on translation would be most disadvantageous for a cell?

translating polypeptides directly from DNA

Why did the F1 offspring of Mendel's classic pea cross always look like one of the two parental varieties?

One phenotype was completely dominant over another.

Which of the following defines a genome?

the complete set of an organism's genes

Which of the following is a protein maintained at constant levels throughout the cell cycle that requires cyclin to become catalytically active?

Cdk

The centromere is a region in which

chromatids remain attached to one another until anaphase.

In the human species, all somatic cells have 46 chromosomes. Which of the following can also be true?

A plant species (privet shrubs) has 46 chromosomes per cell.

Which of the following provides an example of epistasis?

In rabbits and many other mammals, one genotype (cc) prevents any fur color from developing.

At which phase are centrioles beginning to move apart in animal cells?

prophase

Proteins that are involved in the regulation of the cell cycle, and that show fluctuations in concentration during the cell cycle, are called

cyclins.

Thomas Hunt Morgan's choice of Drosophila melanogaster has been proven to be useful even today. Which of the following has/have continued to make it a most useful species?

I. its four pairs of chromosomes
II. a very large number of visible as well as biochemically mutant phenotypes
III. easy and inexpensive maintenance
IV. short generation time and large number of offspring

I, II, III, IV, and V

Red-green color blindness is a sex-linked recessive trait in humans. Two people with normal color vision have a color-blind son. What are the genotypes of the parents?

XCXc and XCY

Use Figure 14.1 and the following description to answer the questions below.

In a particular plant, leaf color is controlled by gene locus D. Plants with at least one allele D have dark green leaves, and plants with the homozygous recessive dd genotype have light green leaves. A true-breeding dark-leaved plant is crossed with a light-leaved one, and the F1 offspring is allowed to self-pollinate. The predicted outcome of the F2 is diagrammed in the Punnett square shown in Figure 14.1, where 1, 2, 3, and 4 represent the genotypes corresponding to each box within the square.


Figure 14.1


Which of the boxes marked 1-4 correspond to plants with dark leaves?

1, 2 and 3

If a horticulturist breeding gardenias succeeds in having a single plant with a particularly desirable set of traits, which of the following would be her most probable and efficient route to establishing a line of such plants?

Clone the plant asexually to produce an identical one.

What was the most significant conclusion that Gregor Mendel drew from his experiments with pea plants?

Traits are inherited in discrete units, and are not the results of "blending."

Why did Mendel continue some of his experiments to the F2 or F3 generation?

to observe whether or not a recessive trait would reappear

Which of the following is a protein synthesized at specific times during the cell cycle that associates with a kinase to form a catalytically active complex?

cyclin

Use the following information to answer the questions below.

The lettered circle in Figure 12.1 shows a diploid nucleus with four chromosomes. There are two pairs of homologous chromosomes, one long and the other short. One haploid set is symbolized as black and the other haploid set is gray. The chromosomes in the unlettered circle have not yet replicated. Choose the correct chromosomal conditions for the following stages.


Figure 12.1


What is the correct chromosomal condition for one daughter nucleus at telophase of mitosis?

E

Use the following information to answer the questions below.

Radish flowers may be red, purple, or white. A cross between a red-flowered plant and a white-flowered plant yields all-purple offspring. The part of the radish we eat may be oval or long, with long being the dominant characteristic.


If true-breeding red long radishes are crossed with true-breeding white oval radishes, the F1 will be expected to be which of the following?

purple and long

A sexually reproducing animal has two unlinked genes, one for head shape (H) and one for tail length (T). Its genotype is HhTt. Which of the following genotypes is possible in a gamete from this organism?

HT

Which of the following might result in a human zygote with 45 chromosomes?

an error in either egg or sperm meiotic anaphase

SRY is best described in which of the following ways?

a gene region present on the Y chromosome that triggers male development

Which of the following nucleotide triplets best represents a codon?

a triplet in the same reading frame as an upstream AUG

What is the reason that linked genes are inherited together?

They are located close together on the same chromosome.

Recombination between linked genes comes about for what reason?

Crossovers between these genes result in chromosomal exchange.

RNA polymerase in a prokaryote is composed of several subunits. Most of these subunits are the same for the transcription of any gene, but one, known as sigma, varies considerably. Which of the following is the most probable advantage for the organism of such sigma switching?

It might allow the polymerase to recognize different promoters under certain environmental conditions.

Eukaryotic sexual life cycles show tremendous variation. Of the following elements, which do all sexual life cycles have in common?
I. Alternation of generations
II. Meiosis
III. Fertilization
IV. Gametes
V. Spores

II, III, and IV

At which stage of mitosis are chromosomes usually photographed in the preparation of a karyotype?

metaphase

Males are more often affected by sex-linked traits than females because

males are hemizygous for the X chromosome.

What do we mean when we use the terms monohybrid cross and dihybrid cross?

A dihybrid cross involves organisms that are heterozygous for two characters and a monohybrid cross involves only one.

The human genome is minimally contained in which of the following?

every human cell

Figure 12.2


If the cell whose nuclear material is shown in Figure 12.2 continues toward completion of mitosis, which of the following events would occur next?

formation of telophase nuclei

In the cross AaBbCc × AaBbCc, what is the probability of producing the genotype AABBCC?

1/64

The following questions refer to the pedigree chart in Figure 14.2 for a family, some of whose members exhibit the dominant trait, W. Affected individuals are indicated by a dark square or circle.


Figure 14.2


What is the likelihood that the progeny of IV-3 and IV-4 will have the trait?

50%

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