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For The Final

Closure

The quality of a conclusion that makes a speech "sound finished"

Delivery outline

A condensed and abbreviated outline from which speaking notes are developed

Mapping

Use of geometric shapes to sketch how all the main ideas, subpoints, and supporting material of a speech relate to the central idea and to one another

Preparation outline

A detailed outline that includes main ideas, subpoints, and supporting material and that may also include a speech's specific purpose, introduction, blueprint, signposts, and conclusion

Standard outline form

Numbered and lettered headings and subheadings arranged hierarchically to indicate the relationships among the various parts of a speech

Alliteration

The repetition of a consonant sound (usually the first consonant) several times in a phrase, clause, or sentence

Antithesis

Opposition, such as that used in two-part sentences whose parts have parallel structures but contrasting meanings

Cliché

An overused expression

Connotation

The meaning listeners associate with a word, based on past experience

Crisis rhetoric

Language used by speakers during momentous or overwhelming times

Denotation

The literal meaning of a word

Ethnic vernacular

A variety of English that includes words and phrases used by a specific ethnic group

Figure of speech

Language that deviates from the ordinary, expected meanings of words to make a description or comparison unique, vivid, and memorable

Inversion

Reversal of the normal word order of a phrase or sentence

Jargon

The specialized language of a profession or hobby

Metaphor

An implied comparison of two things or concepts that is similar in some vital way

Omission

Leaving out a word or phrase the listener expects to hear

Parallelism

Use of the same grammatical pattern for two or more clauses or sentences

Personification

The attribution of human qualities to inanimate things or ideas

Regionalisms

A word or phrase used uniquely by speakers in one part of a country

Repetition

Use of a key word or phrase more than once for emphasis

Simile

A comparison between two things that uses the word like or as

Standard U.S. English

The English taught by schools and used in the media, business, and government in the United States

Suspension

Withholding a key word or phrase until the end of a sentence

Thesaurus

A book containing a store of words and their synonyms

Articulation

The production of clear and distinct speech sounds

Boom microphone

A microphone that is suspended from a bar and moved to follow the speaker; often used in movies and TV

Dialect

A consistent style of pronouncing words that is common to an ethnic group or geographic region

Emotional contagion theory

A theory suggesting that people "catch" the emotions of others

Extemporaneous speaking

Speaking from a written or memorized speech outline without having the exact wording of the speech in front of you or in memory

Immediacy

The degree of physical or psychological closeness between people

Immediacy behaviors

Nonverbal expressions of closeness to and liking for an audience, made through such means as physical approach or eye contact

Impromptu speaking

Delivering a speech without advance preparation

Inflection

The variation of the pitch of the voice

Lavaliere microphone

A microphone that can be clipped to an article of clothing or worn on a cord around the neck

Manuscript speaking

Reading a speech from a written text

Memorized speaking

Delivering a speech word for word from memory without using notes

Nonverbal communication

Communication other than written or spoken language that creates meaning

Nonverbal-expectancy theory

A communication theory suggesting that if listeners' expectations about how communication should be expressed are violated, listeners will feel less favorable toward the communicator of the message

Pitch

The highness or lowness of voice sounds

Pronunciation

The proper use of sounds to form words clearly and accurately

Stationary microphone

A microphone that is found attached to a podium, sitting on a desk, or standing on the floor

Volume

The softness or loudness of a speaker's voice

Bar graph

A graph in which bars of various lengths represent information

Chart

A display that summarizes and presents a great deal of information in a small amount of space

Clip art

Images or pictures stored in a computer file or in printed form that can be used in a presentation aid

Font

A particular style of typeface

Graph

A pictorial representation of statistical data

Line graph

A graph that uses lines or curves to show relationships between two or more variables

Model

A small object that represents a larger object

Picture graph

A graph that uses images or pictures to symbolize data

Pie graph

A circular graph divided into wedges that show the distribution of data

Presentation aid

Any tangible object, image, or sound that helps to communicate an idea to an audience

Visual rhetoric

The use of images as an integrated element in the total communication effort a speaker makes to achieve the speaking goal

Andragogy

The art and science of teaching adults

Pedagogy

The art and science of teaching children

Speech to inform

A speech that shares information with others about ideas, concepts, principles, or processes to enhance their knowledge or understanding

Word picture

A vivid description that appeals to the senses

Attitude

A predisposition to respond favorably (like) or unfavorably (dislike) to something

Belief

An individual's perception of what is true or false

Benefit

A good result that creates a positive emotional response in the listener

Cognitive dissonance

The sense of mental discomfort that prompts a person to change when new information conflicts with previously organized thought patterns

Direct persuasion route

Persuasion that occurs when audience members critically examine evidence and arguments

Elaborate

From the standpoint of the elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion, to think about information, ideas, and issues related to the content of a message

Elaboration likelihood model (ELM) of persuasion

The theory that listeners can be persuaded directly, by logic, reasoning, and evidence, or indirectly, by their overall impression of the message

Ethos

The term that Aristotle used to refer to a speaker's credibility

Feature

A characteristic of something you are describing

Indirect persuasion route

Persuasion that occurs as a result of factors peripheral to a speaker's logic and argument, such as the speaker's charisma or emotional appeals

Logos

Literally, "the word"; the term that Aristotle used to refer to logic-the formal system of using rules to reach a rational conclusion

Motivation

An internal force that drives people to achieve their goals

Pathos

The term that Aristotle used to refer to appeals to emotion

Persuasion

The process of changing or reinforcing a listener's attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior

Proposition

A statement with which a speaker wants an audience to agree

Proposition of fact

A proposition that focuses on whether something is true or false or whether it did or did not happen

Proposition of policy

A proposition that advocates a change in a policy, procedure, or behavior

Proposition of value

A proposition that calls for a listener to judge the worth or importance of something

Self-actualization

The need to achieve one's highest potential

Social judgment theory

The theory that listeners; responses to persuasive messages fall in the category responses to persuasive messages fall in the category of latitude of acceptance, the latitude of rejection, or the latitude of no commitment

Value

An enduring concept of right and wrong, good and bad

Ad hominem

An attack on irrelevant personal characteristics of the person who is proposing an idea rather than on the idea itself

Appeal to misplaced authority

Use of the testimony of an expert in a given field to endorse an idea or product for which the expert does not have the appropriate credentials or expertise

Bandwagon fallacy

Reasoning that suggests that because everyone else believes something or is doing something, then it must be valid or correct

Causal fallacy

A faulty cause-and-effect connection between two things or events

Causal reasoning

Reasoning in which the relationship between two or more events leads the person to conclude that one or more of the events leads the person to conclude that one or more of the events caused the others

Charisma

A form of dynamism characteristic of a talented, charming, attractive speaker

Competence

An aspect of a speaker's credibility that reflects whether the speaker is perceive as informed, skilled, or knowledgeable

Conclusion

The logical outcome of a deductive argument, which stems form the major premise and the minor premise

Deductive reasoning

Reasoning that moves from a general statement or principle to a specific, certain conclusion

Demagogue

A speaker who attempts to gain control over others by using unethical emotional pleas and appeals to listeners' prejudices

Derived credibility

The perception of a speaker's credibility that an audience forms during a speech

Dynamism

An aspect of a speaker's credibility that reflects whether speaker is perceived as energetic

Either/ or fallacy

The oversimplification of an issue into a choice between only tow outcomes or possibilities

Emotional response theory

Human emotional responses can be classified as eliciting feelings of pleasure, arousal, or dominance

Example

An illustration used to dramatize or clarify a fact

Fact

Information that has been proven to be true through direct observation

Fallacy

False reasoning that occurs when someone attempts to persuade without adequate evidence or with arguments that are irrelevant or inappropriate

Generalization

An all-encompassing statement

Hasty generalization

A conclusion reached without adequate evidence

Inductive reasoning

Reasoning that uses specific instances or examples to reach a general, probable conclusion

Inference

A conclusion based on partial information or an evaluation that has not been directly observed

Initial credibility

The impression of a speaker's credibility that listeners have before the speaker starts a speech

Major premise

A general statement that is the first element of a syllogism

Minor premise

A specific statement about an example that is linked to the major premise; the second element of a syllogism

Myth

A belief based on the shared values, cultural heritage, and faith of a group of people

Non sequitur

Latin for "it does not follow"; an idea or conclusion that does not logically relate to or follow from the previous idea or conclusion

Red herring

Irrelevant facts or information used to distract someone from the issue under discussion

Reluctant testimony

A statement by someone who has reversed his or her position a given issue

Syllogism

A three-part way of developing an argument, using a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion

Terminal credibility

The final impression listeners have of a speaker's credibility, after a speech concludes

Trustworthiness

An aspect of a speaker's credibility that reflects whether the speaker is perceived as believable and honest

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