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Theresienstadt

Concentration camp established in Czechoslovakia as a model camp to be shown to outside visitors from neutral countries. Jews that were sent here were later sent to Auschwitz and killed.

Third Reich

Third empire. Hitler's name for his Germany and its administration from 1933-1945.

Treaty of Versailles

One of the treaties signed to end World War I. it stripped Germany of much land, forced the government to pay reparations to Allies and accused Germany of responsibility for the war.

Treblinka

Death camp in Poland. 850,000 Jews were murdered in gas chambers in just one year. In 1943 the camp was blown up by an uprising of the remaining 600 prisoners, all but 40 died.

Tuberculosis

An infectious disease which usually attacks the lungs

Typhus

A severely infectious disease which brings a high fever, exhaustion and often death. Usually carried by lice and fleas and was an uncontrollable killer in ghettos.

Uebermenschen

Nazi term for "supermen" which to them was a racial idea. They hoped to create a race of biologically pure supermen.

Underground

the secret groups fighting the Nazi occupation. Includes the resistance movements in each country under Nazi rule.

Vatican

The central authority for the Catholic Church; the authority and government of the pope. Also refers to the residence of the pope in Vatican City.

Volk

German word for people or nation. The term has a strongly nationalistic and even racial implication.

Volksgeminschaft

German word meaning national community.

War Refugee Board

Agency established by president Roosevelt to negotiate the relief or rescue of war refugees, especially Jews.

Wermacht

The German Army, as distinguished from the SS.

Weimar Republic

The German government from 1919-1934. The Republic's center was in Berlin. A democratic republican like the United States. It was burdened after World War I. When Hitler combined the offices of Chancellor and President, the Weimar Republic came to an end.

World Jewish Congress

Agency founded to coordinate different Jewish organizations. During the war it worked to help the Jews of Europe from its offices in Switzerland.

Yom Kippur

The Jewish Day of Atonement. The holiest day of the year for Jews on which they traditionally fast for 24 hours.

Zegota

Polish group connected to the underground resistance movement against the Nazis. Devoted themselves to the rescue of Jews in Warsaw and Kracow and saved 4000-6000 Jews.

Zyklon B

The cyanide gas made of prussic acid which was used to kill the Jews in the gas chambers of Auschwitz. Other camps used carbon monoxide gas.

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