What are the genetic blueprint for protein synthesis?
What is made up of 2 polynucleotide chains in double helix? Also a gene and template for RNA.
What is a single polynucleotide chain, transcribed from DNA? Plays a role in protein synthesis.
messenger RNA, transfer RNA, and ribosomal RNA
What are the major types of RNA?
What are amino acids linked by peptide bonds?
What about the structure of a protein gives it some ability to change shape?
aa chains and macromolecules
What do proteins combine with?
What serve as enzymes, filaments, receptors, channels, etc?
What are responsible for major energy storage and cushioning for organs?
What is an important component of cell membranes?
Triglycerides, phospholipids, and steroids
What types of lipids are there?
Carbohydrates or proteins
What may lipids combine with?
What is a single sugar unit, ie glucose?
What would be made up of 2 sugars?
What would be made up of 4 sugars?
What would be referred to as a complex carbohydrate, ie glycogen?
What is a polysaccharide formed by repeating disaccharide units?
Proteins or lipids
Carbohydrates may combine with what?
Cell > Tissue > Organ
Using arrows, what are the basic levels of biological organization?
What is the basic unit of living organisms?
Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus
What are the three main components of a cell?
Cytosol, organelles, cytoskeleton, and inclusions
What does the cytoplasm consist of?
What is made up of a variety of protein filaments?
What are known are the functional unit within the cell?
What play a large role in interaction between cellular and extracellular components?
limiting membrane, connection and communication, and immunological recognition
What are the three major functions of the cell membrane?
What terminology refers to a membrane's ability to diffuse, facilitated transport and prevent passage?
extracellular matrix and other cells
The cell membrane functions to communicate with what?
What term refers to the body's ability to recognize cell as belonging to itself so immune system doesn't attack it?
7.5 to 10 nm
How thick are cell membranes?
Stable and fluid
Phospholipid bi-layers have what important qualities?
diferent composition of phospholipids
The inner and outer layers of the cell membrane are different how?
What part of the cell membrane is hydrophilic?
What part of the cell membrane is hydrophobic?
What modulates membrane fluidity?
What kind of proteins are incorporated into the lipid bi-layer and are not easy to strip away?
What proteins are looser associations with the membrane and easy to strip away?
What is responsible for functioning as pumps, channels, pores, enzymes, etc?
Are proteins bound rigidly in place?
What may coordinate protein movement?
What can be limited by cholesterol, intercellular junctions, peripheral proteins, cytoskeleton, etc?
Do inner and outer membranes have the same or different protein composition?
Carbohydrate chains form this on the external surface, also known as a carbohydrate coat?
Receptors (for signaling molecules) and adhesions
What are the functions of glycoproteins and glycolipids?
Is the cell membrane symmetrical?
This feature of the membrane is important so components can move and can be added and removed?
Diffusion, channel proteins, carrier proteins,and vesicular transport
What are the four methods of exchange of material across the membrane?
What form of exchange involves some fat soluble and small uncharged molecules?
What form hydrophilic pores and have open/closed states?
What is known as active transport and is small water soluble and highly selective?
Endocytosis and exocytosis
What are the two types of vesicular transport?
Fluid phase pinocytosis
What type of endocytosis is nonspecific and is bringing in small amounts of fluid to cells?
What does a pinocytotic vesicle usually fuse with?
What is described as moving material from one side of cell to the other?
Receptor mediated endocytosis
What types of endocytosis is highly selective and involves membrane receptors moving together and coated pits turning to coated vesicles?
What do vesicles from receptor mediated endocytosis fuse with?
What type of endocytosis brings in larger structures by cell eating and can be specific or nonspecific?
What does a phagosome typically fuse with?
What is the process where a vacuule is created, moved to the surface and moved into the extracellular space without opening cell membrane?
An example of what would be sending up phospholipids to the cell membrane everytime exocytosis occurs?
What type of intercellular signaling can occur via gap junctions or direct contact?
What type of intercellular signaling involves a signal molecule passing through extracellular space and/or vascular system?
This type of indirect intracellular signaling involves one cell secreting material and that being picked up by another cell.
This type of indirect intercellular signaling involves material traveling through the vascular system and interacting with distant cells.
This type of indirect intercellular signaling has molecules get caught up in extracellular material and eventually signals back to cell that secreted it,
cytoplasmic (intracellular) proteins
Small hydrophobic molecules diffuse through the cell membrane to activate what?
Most signaling molecules are what?
cell membrane proteins
Receptors for hydrophilic molecules are what?
Activation of second messenger systems
Often, activation of G protein complexes > __________ > intracellular responses
Increased metabolism of glycogen or fats, alteration in protein synthesis, water conservation in kidneys are all examples of what?
Many physiologic processes associated with organelles occur where?
What are responsible for efficiency and partitioning (making sure things don't get in the way of one another)?
What are responsible for energy function of a cell and ATP synthesis?
What are shaped oblong, contain cristae (infolding of inner membrane), and contain matrix and intermembrane spaces?
matrix surface of inner membrane
Oxidative phosphorylation of the electron transport system occurs where?
within the matrix
For mitochondria, the citric acid cycle and beta oxidation occur where?
Mitochondrial deficiency diseases
What types of disease reduce enzyme ability to produce ATP which limits exercise and GI function?