Semester Exam Review

205 terms by LindseyWinnPHS

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Science Exam review

warm front

a front where warm air moves over cold air and brings drizzly rain and then are followed by warm and clear weather

cold front

forms when cold air moves under warm air which is less dense and pushes air up (produces thunderstorms heavy rain or snow

occlude front

A boundary that forms when a cold front overtakes a warm front

stationary front

a boundary between air masses that don't move possibly causing rain for several days

Air mass

Move from the West to East in the U.S...What meterolgist base daily weather off of

Airmass over land/water

Is different due to the unequal heating of the earth. It takes water longer to heat.

Troposphere

There lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere, where weather occurs.

Mesosphere

the layer of the atmosphere between the stratosphere and the thermosphere and in which temperature decreases as altitude increases and meteor burn up

Stratosphere

the layer of the atmosphere that contains the ozone layer; temperature increases as you go up

Thermosphere

The outermost layer of Earth's atmosphere.

Ionosphere

layer of electrically charged particles in the thermosphere that absorbs AM radio waves during the day and reflects them back at night (Northern lights)

Exosphere

the layer of the atmosphere that fades into outer space

Humidity

the amount of water vapor in the air

Relative Humidity

the ratio of the amount of water in the air at a give temperature to the maximum amount it could hold at that temperature

Dew point

the temperature at which the water vapor in the air becomes saturated and condensation begins

Temperature

the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment (corresponding to its molecular activity)

Wind

Movement of air masses

Daily weather forecasting

Meteorologist look at air mass movements

High Pressure system

generally brings clear skies and calm air or gentle breezes (clockwise)

Low Pressure system

Pressure system with counterclockwise and inward winds that brings cloudiness and stormy weather

Anemometer

Measures wind speed

Barometer

Measures air pressure

Hygrometer

measures humidity or moisture (water vapor)

Thermometer

An instrument used to measure temperature

Weather vane

Tells wind direction

Weather balloon

Carries instruments that checks weather for weather stations

Weather satellite

Greatest technological impact in weather

Jet Stream

narrow belt of strong winds that blows near the top of the troposphere (Planes fly in)

Polar Easterlies

Dry, cold, winds: blow near poles

Trade Winds

Blow from NE

Precipitation

Rain, sleet, hail, snow

Evaporation

Water turning from a liquid to gas

Condensation

the process in which water vapor in the atmosphere becomes liquid (cloud)

Runoff

water that flows over the ground surface rather than soaking into the ground

Elevation

Higher in the atmosphere you go,air pressure decreases

Coriolis effect

The way Earth's rotation makes winds in the Northern Hemisphere curve to the right and winds in the Southern Hemisphere curve to the left.

Earth's rotation

causes day and night

Earth's revolution

is the movement of earth around the sun

How long does it take the earth to rotate around the sun?

365.25 days

How are the Northern/Southern hemisphere's different

They do the opposite: seasons, moons, hurricanes, winds, etc...

Seasons

Caused by the tilt of the earths axis

How does the sun affect gravity?

Gravity binds us/other plants to orbit around the sun

Milky Way

Our galaxy

Why is our galaxy called the milky way?

It looks "milky" in appearance

Galaxy

Made up of planets, stars, gas, and dust all head together by gravity

Elliptical galaxy

Irregular galaxy

Spiral galaxy

Spherical

Round shape

Light years

186 miles per light year

Solar systems age

Younger than the universe

How old is the sun/solar system?

around 4.5 million years old

Universe is constantly

expanding in size

x-ray telescopes

uses x-rays from space (high energy)

Light from the galaxy

As it moves towards you it turns blue, as it moves away it darkens

Where is the sun located in our galaxy

on orion's arm

Crust

the outermost layer of the Earth that floats on magma

Continental crust

Under continents (thick)

oceanic crust

ocean floor (thinnest)

mantle

thickest layer of the Earth, part liquid part solid where convection currents are found

inner core

A dense sphere of solid iron and nickel at the center of Earth

outer core

the liquid layer of the Earth's core that lies beneath the Mantle and surrounds the inner Core

Depth of the Earth

more density, pressure and hotter

Asthenosphere

100- 35 KM thick. Plastic, pliable, weak, hot, flows, more dense., the soft layer of the mantle on which the lithosphere floats

Lithosphere

the rigid outer layer of Earth, including the crust and upper mantle

faulting

a crack in the earth's surface where two pieces of land have moved in different directions

Folding

Occurs when rock layers bend due to the stress in the Earth's crust.

basalt

a dark, dense, igneous rock with a fine texture, found in oceanic crust

Granite

A usually light colored igneous rock that is found in continental crust

Earth with more CO2

Earth will heat up

Tectonic plates

individual sections of the lithosphere of the earth. They fit together in a way similar to a jigsaw puzzle, but are always moving very slowly, floating on the molten rock of the lower mantle.

Continental drift

The hypothesis that states that the continents once formed a single landmass, broke up, and drifted to their present locations.

What will earth look like 50 million years from now?

Pangea Ultima (land will slowly start to drift back together to make one big content)

Transform boundary

the boundary between tectonic plates that are sliding past each other horizontally

Divergent boundary

Plates that are dividing

Convergent

Plates that are colliding

Deep Sea Trench

formed by the subduction of plates

Volcanic arc

Chain of volcanoes formed by underwater convergent boundaries

continetal mountains

Thickest part of the earths crust

Earthquakes

sudden movements of Earth's crust followed by a series of shocks occurs near a fault zone

Epicenter

the point on the Earth's surface directly above the focus of an earthquake

focus

the point inside the Earth where an earthquake begins

L Waves

waves that travel horizontally, surface waves; last, slowest; bend & twist crust doing the most damage

P Waves

Push/pull waves; 1st, fastest, & go through solids & liquids

S waves

Side-to-side waves; 2nd, slower, & go though solids;

Pangea

large supercontinent that existed 250 million years ago

Microwave radiation

A form of radiant energy in which heat is transferred by short, high-frequency waves.

UV waves (ultra violet)

Invisible to the human eye, causes skin cancer. ex: from sun

Visible light

electromagnetic waves that are visible to the human eye

gamma radiation

shortest wavelengths and highest frequencies...used in hospitals to treat cancer.

x-ray

because of their high frequencies these can be used to see bones in the body

radio waves

electromagnetic waves with the longest wavelengths and lowest frequencies.

Qualitative

descriptive data Ex: describes how something taste, smells, texture, color, etc..

Quantitative

Deals with numbers: measurement

Tropical storm

when the winds of a tropical depression begin to blow even faster and thunderstorms move in spiral bands toward the area of lowest air pressure

Hurricane

a severe tropical cyclone usually with heavy rains and winds moving a 73 or more MPH

What must a tropical storm reach to become a hurricane in KNOTS?

64

Tides

Moons gravitational pull effects high/low tide

Prime meridian

Runs N to S

equinox

twice-yearly time-each spring and fall-when the Sun is directly over the equator and the number of daylight and nighttime hours are equal worldwide

Summer solstice

June 21 or 22, when the sun is at its northernmost point

Winter Solstice

December21 or 22, when the sun is at its southernmost point

three reasons we have seasons

Tilt of the earth, revolution of earth, North pole always points in the same direction

How many degrees does the earth move each hour?

15 degrees

axis

is what the earth spins on

how many moon phases are there?

8

crescent moon

gibbous moon

new moon

what moon is this?

Waning

shrinking

Waxing

growing

How long is the lunar month?

29.5 days

Alto

high

Altocumulus cloud

white/gray medium clouds that occur in puffs

asteroid

a piece of rock or metal made up of material similar to that which formed the planets; mostly found in the asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter

atmospheric pressure

the pressure exerted by the atmosphere as altitude increases pressure decreases and vice versa

aurora

an atmospheric phenomenon consisting of bands of light caused by charged solar particles known as "Northern Lights"

black hole

a region of space resulting from the collapse of a star

body waves

these are the s and p waves because they travel through the body of the Earth.

carbon dioxide

a heavy odorless colorless gas formed during respiration and by the decomposition of organic substances

nitrogen cycle

the transfer of nitrogen from the atmosphere to the soil, to living organisms, and back to the atmosphere

carbon cycle

the movement of carbon from the nonliving environment into living things and back

water cycle

the continuous movement of water between Earth's surface and the air, changing from liquid to gas to liquid

oxygen cycle

A natural cycle in which plants and Other procucers use carbon dioxide and produce oxygen, and Living things use oxygen and produce carbon dioxide.

green house effect

process by which heat is trapped by gasses in earth's atmophere

richter scale

Used to measure magnitude of earthquake. 1935 by Charles F. Richter - scale of 1.0 - 9.0 = size of seismic waves.

cirrus

a wispy white cloud (usually of fine ice crystals) at a high altitude (4 to 8 miles)

stratus

Clouds that form in low, horizontal layers, cover all or most of sky

cumulus

Clouds that look like fluffy, rounded piles of cotton

nimbus

a dark gray cloud bearing rain

Celsius

F - 32 / 1.8

Fahrenheit

C X 1.8 + 32

cold front symbols

Blue line with triangles

Warm front symbols

Red line with half circles

Stationary front symbols

With circles and triangles

Alkali metal

most reactive metal, group 1

Hydrogen

Group by itself

Atom

Small particle of matter

Atomic mass

Number at the bottom of the periodic table

Atomic number

number at the top of the periodic table...Show how many protons and neutrons there are

base

8-14 on pH scale

Acid

1-6 on pH Scale

Water on pH scale

7 (neutral)

biomass

organic matter such as: plants, wood and waste that contain stored energy

chemical change

A change in matter that produces one or more new substances

Physical Change

A change that alters the form or appearance of a material but does not make the material into another substance.

Compound

a pure substance composed of 2 or more elements

Compound machine

a machine that is made of simple machines

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