What are three continents around the Arabian Peninsula?
Europe, Africa, and Asia
What are the bodies of water around the Arabian Peninsula?
Persian Gulf, the Arabian sea, and the Gulf of Aden
Why is the geography in the Arabian Peninsula important?
The geography in the Arabian Peninsula is important because it allows trade to pass through the peninsula
What are four types of terrain in the Arabian Peninsula?
Deserts, plains, oases, and mountains
What are adaptations used in the deserts?
Inhabitants are nomads, use camels, and have loose clothes to overcompensate for their environment
What are adaptations used in oases?
Inhabitants are sedentary, grow crops, and use date palms for construction to overcompensate for their environment
What are adaptations used in the plains?
Inhabitants built irrigation systems, grow crops, and trade on the coastal plain to overcompensate for their environment
What are adaptations used in the mountains?
Inhabitants used terraces to farm, made irrigation systems, built mud houses, and fertilized their land to make fit for vegetation to overcompensate for their environment
Where did Muhammad find out he was a prophet?
In a cave while he was praying
How did Muhammad find out he was a prophet?
The angel Gabriel told him that he was the messenger of God
What did Muhammad call Christians and Jews?
The People of the Book
Why did Muhammad call them this?
Because Jews, Christians, and Muslims all believed in the same God
What are the two sects of Islam?
Sunnis and the Shi'a
What do the Sunnis believe?
Anyone could take the throne after Muhammad's death
What do the Shi'a believe?
Only Muhammad's relatives can take the throne after his death
what is the significance of the Ka'ba?
It's a shrine where Muhammad and his Muslim followers destroyed idols in Makkah and rededicated the shrine to Allah
What is polytheism?
Belief in more than one god
What is monotheism?
Belief in one god
What is the Qur'an?
The holy book of Islam
What are the five pillars of faith?
Shahadah, Salat, Zakat, Siyam, and Hajj
What is Shahadah?
Declaration of faith in God and Muhammad as God's messenger
What is Salat?
What is Zakat?
Giving wealth to the poor
What is Siyam?
Fasting during Ramadan
What is Hajj?
Pilgrimage to the Ka'ba
What are three great Muslim cities?
Damascus, Jerusalem, and Kalisiya
What are mosques?
Centers of worship for Muslims
What are minarets?
Tall towers of mosques
Who are imams?
Leaders of prayer in a mosque
What is jihad?
Struggle in pleasing God
What is lesser jihad?
External struggle in pleasing God
What is greater jihad?
Internal struggle in pleasing God
What are the contributions Muslims made to bookmaking and literature?
Promotion of illustrating books and introduced mysticism
What are contributions Muslims made to science and technology?
The study of zoology, astronomy, and certain irrigation systems
What are contributions Muslims made to geography and navigation?
Accurate maps, first encyclopedia on traveling, and theories on Earth's size
What are contributions Muslims made to math?
Algebra, the concept of zero, and the promotion of Arabic numbers
What are contributions Muslims made to medicine?
Pharmacology, painkillers, concept of surgery, and the promotion of hospitals
What are contributions Muslims made to education?
Theories on faith and immortal souls, and the promotion of centers of learning
What are contributions Muslims made to art and music?
Calligraphy, textiles, and conservatories
What are contributions Muslims made to recreation?
Polo and Chess
Which group invaded Palestine?
Which Christian group did this worry?
The Christians in the east
Why did this worry the Christians?
Because the group threatened the Byzantine empire and the Holy Land (Jerusalem)
What was the first crusade?
Christians were let into Jerusalem's nearby city and surrounded Jerusalem, and killed Jews and Muslims inside
What was the second crusade?
Christians go on another crusade when Muslims capture one of their lands, Edessa. Muslims keep the Christians away, making the crusade a failure
What was the third crusade?
Muslims capture Jerusalem, causing the crusaders to go on another quest. The soldiers on both sides are too weak to fight, and Jerusalem agrees on a peace treaty to let the crusaders inside
What was the impact of the crusades for Arabia?
Introduced to new weapons and economic security
What was the impact of the crusades for Europe?
Population drop, Economic damages, introduced to Arabian products
Which group brought an end to the Byzantine empire?
Which city were the crusaders trying to reclaim for Christianity?
What is the Iberian Peninsula?
Peninsula in southwestern Europe that today is divided between Spain and Portugal
What is Inquisition?
A judicial body established by the Catholic church to combat heresy and other religious errors
What is a synagogue?
Jewish house of worship
What is antisemitism?
Prejudice towards Jews