chapter five FC

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athenian democracy

type of government used in Athens which is sort of a combine of majority rule and democracy.

olympics

the greatest national festival of the ancient greeks; modern revival of the games held every 4 years

geography and climate of greece

mountainous and few natural recources

mycenaeans

civilization on the greek mainland that conquered the Minoans in Crete in about 1400 B.C.

trojan war

A war (around 1200 B.C.), in which an army lead by Mycenaean kings attacked the city of Troy in Anatolia.

minoans

a culture that lived in greece between 3000 B.C. and 1400 B.C.

dorian's

A Greek-speaking people who migrated into mainland Greece after the destruction of the Mycenaean civilization.

dark ages

roughly 200-year period in Greek history that followed the final collapse of the Mycenaean civilization in the 12th century BC.

epics of Homer

a set of poems told by a blind greek philosopher

epic

a long narrative poem telling of a hero's deeds

myth

A traditional story about gods, ancestors, or heroes, told to explain the natural world or the customs and beliefs of a society.

greek myths

Greek traditional stories about their Gods/Goddesses. The Greeks gave human qualities to their Gods, and gave them the ability to compete with one another. Greek myths were used to understand the mysteries of nature, human passions, and etc.

polis

Greek city-state

acropolis

A fortified hilltop in an ancient Greek city

greek political structures

aristocracy, monarchy, oligarcy and tyrany

athenian education

The sons of wealthy families were formally educated, beginning at the age of 7. They studied reading, grammar, poetry, history, mathematics, music, logic, and public speaking. They were also trained in athletics. When they got older, they went to military school.

sparta

an ancient Greek city famous for military prowess

athens

the capital and largest city of Greece

helots

Slaves to the Spartans that revolted and nearly destroyed Sparta in 650 B.C.E.

phlanx

in ancient greece a military formation in which foot soldiers stood so that their sheilds overlapped

persian wars

Conflicts between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire, ranging from the Ionian Revolt (499-494 B.C.E.) through Darius's punitive expedition that failed at Marathon. Chronicled by Herodotus. (131)

pheidippides

runner that carried messages to Sparta and Athens and died inside of the Athenian gates. modern marathons are imitations of his 20 mile run

direct democracy

A form of government in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives

athenian empire

Delian League used to help unite the people of the Empire; used the money from them to build up navy

persian wars

Conflicts between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire, ranging from the Ionian Revolt (499-494 B.C.E.) through Darius's punitive expedition that failed at Marathon. Chronicled by Herodotus. (131)

parthenon

the main temple of the goddess Athena

classical art

the art of ancient Greece and Rome, in which harmony, order, and proportion were emphasized

tradgedy and comedy

litariture wherea hero is destroyed by a flaw in his own character

peloponnesian war

a war in which Athens and its allies were defeated by the league centered on Sparta

history

the discipline that records and interprets past events involving human beings

socraties

pursued absolute standards for moral conduct. Dialectal method.

plato

ancient Athenian philosopher

aristotle

Greek philosopher. A pupil of Plato, the tutor of Alexander the Great, and the author of works on logic, metaphysics, ethics, natural sciences, politics, and poetics, he profoundly influenced Western thought. In his philosophical system, which led him to criticize what he saw as Plato's metaphysical excesses, theory follows empirical observation and logic, based on the syllogism, is the essential method of rational inquiry.

macedonians

invaded Athens under Philip of Macedon. Alexander the Great continued it.spread greek culture. (hellenism)

alexander

King of Macedonia in northern Greece. Between 334 and 323 B.C.E. he conquered the Persian Empire, reached the Indus Valley, founded many Greek-style cities, and spread Greek culture across the Middle East. Later known as Alexander the Great. (p. 136)

hellenistic culture

Greek culture blended with Egyptian, Persian and Indian ideas, as a result of Alexander the Great's Empire.

archemedes

(287-212BCE) scientist. important for work on the geometry of spheres and cylinders, establishing pi and creating the sciene ofhydrostatics. archimedean screw.

colossus of rhodes

Largest known Hellenistic statues, one of the wonders of the ancient world

stoicism

(philosophy) the philosophical system of the Stoics following the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Zeno

epicureanism

philosophy founded by Epicurus in Hellenistic Athens; taught that happiness through the pursuit of pleasure was the goal of life

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