Nutrition Exam 2

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The main function of carbohydrates in the body is to:

Provide Energy

The main component of starch and glycogen, called blood sugar, the most important carbohydrate fuel for the human body

Glucose

Have inadequate production of the enzyme lactase

Lactose Intolerant

____cannot be digested by human digestive enzymes

Fiber

Carbohydrate digestions begins in the:

Mouth

Fiber and other indigestible carbohydrates are partially broken down by the bacteria in the:

Large Intestine

The rise in blood glucose levels after eating stimulates the pancreas to secret the hormone_____, causing blood glucose levels to____

Insulin, drop

Hormone, stimulates the synthesis of protein, fat, and glycogen, and secreted by the pancreas

Insulin

Where there is not sufficient carbohydrate to completely metabolize fatty acids, these molecules form:

Ketones

___is caused by an autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing cells in the pancreas

Type 1 diabetes

The lipid that makes up most of the lipids in our body is:

Triglyceride

____is an important component of cell membrane, forming a lipid bilayer by orientating the water-soluble portion towards the water environment

Phospholipid

____is needed in the body to make Vitamin D, bile acids, and cortisol

Cholesterol

Which of the following choices represents monosaccharide:disaccharide:complex with regard to classification of carbohydrates?

glucose:sucrose:insoluble fiber

The best known phospholipid used by the food industry to prevent oil from separating from other ingredient is____

Lecithin

Since chylomicrons are too large to enter the capillaries in the small intestine, they pass into the:

Lymph

Return cholesterol from other lipoproteins and body cells to the liver

HDLS

Protein molecules consumed in the diet and form the breakdown of body proteins

Amino Acid pool

If the diet is deficient in one or more of the___amino acids, the body must break down existing proteins to provide the amino acids

Essential

Lipoprotein lipase breaks down the triglycerides in chylomicrons into:

Fatty acids and glycerol

To maintain a healthy body weight, Shaundra needs to eat 1850 calories per day. To be within the DRIs recommendations for total fat intake, which of the following amounts of total fat should be her upper limit

72

Which two lipoproteins deliver triglycerides to body cells?

Chylomicrons and VLDL

Which of the following represents the correct sequence of steps that occur in protein synthesis?

Transcription-->mRNA takes genetic code to ribosomes-->translation

Which lipoprotein has the highest proportion of triglyceride?

Chylomicron

The___amino acid is the essential amino acid that is available in the lowest concentration relative to the body's needs

Limiting

Protein___is a measure of how good the protein in food is at providing the essential amino acids the body needs

Quality

Swollen belly

Kwashiokor

Someone whose nitrogen output is greater than their nitrogen intake is said to be in

Negative nitrogen balance

These are certain conditions under which some of the nonessential amino acids cannot be synthesized to meet the body's needs. When this occurs these amino acids are referred to as___amino acids.

Conditionally essential

Protein requirements per unit of body weight are____for infants and children than for adults

Greater

Rapid initial weight loss achieved on a low-carbohydrate diet is primarily due to____loss.

Water

Which of the following types of vegetarians consume no form of animal product?

Vegan

Tissue repair, enzyme production, hormone regulation

Protein

A___bond joins amino acids together

Peptide

Matt weights 185 pounds and he wants to make sure that he is getting the RDA requirement for protein. How many grams of proteins should he be getting to meet the RDA? (1kg=2.2 pounds)

67 grams

Lipids that are consumed in the diet are absorbed into the intestinal mucosal cells. From here, all of the following molecules, with the exception of____, are not soluble in water, and are thus packaged for transport.

short-chain fatty acids

Women who have gestational diabetes are at risk for developing type 2 diabetes late in life

True

The terms stone ground and cracked wheat indicate that the product is a whole grain product

False

Body proteins that are broken down to make glucose are no longer available to do their jobs like to speed up a chemical reaction or to contract a muscle

True

All omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are unsaturated

True

The glycemic index is a measure of how quickly and how high blood glucose levels rise after carbohydrates are consumed

True

All cis and trans fatty acids are saturated

False

The ability of the body to store excess triglycerides is theoretically limitless

True

The DRI for protein is 1.8 grams per kilogram of body weight

False

The process by which amino acids enter the body involves as energy-requiring amino acids transport system

True

Hydrogeneration makes a saturated fatty acid more unsaturated

False

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