Russia enters the First World War.
Russia suffers 2 million casualties.
Progressive bloc calls for a new government responsible to the Duma rather than to the czar.
Czar Nicholas adjourns the Duma and departs for the front; Alexandra and Rasputin exert a strong influence on the government.
Rasputin is murdered.
March 8, 1917
Bread riots take place in Petrograd (St. Petersburg)
March 12, 1917
Duma declares a provisional government.
March 15, 1917
Czar Nicholas abdicates.
April 16, 1917
Lenin returns from exile and denounces the provisional government.
Reorganized provisional government, including Kerensky, continues the war.
Petrograd Soviet issues Army Order No. 1, granting military power to committees of common soldiers.
Agrarian upheavals: peasants seize estates; peasant soldiers desert the army to participate.
Bolsheviks gain a majority in the Petrograd Soviet.
Nov. 6, 1917
Bolsheviks seize power; Lenin heads the new "provisional workers' and peasants' government."
Lenin accepts peasant seizure of land and worker control of factories; all banks are nationalized.
Lenin permanently disbands the Constituent Assembly.
Lenin convinces the Bolshevik Central Committee to accept a humiliating peace with Germany in order to safeguard the revolution.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk: Russia loses one-third of its population.
Trotsky as war commissar begins to rebuild the Russian army.
Government moves from Petrograd to Moscow.
Great civil war takes place.
Eighteen regional governments compete for power.
White armies oppose the Bolshevik Revolution.
White armies are on the offensive, but divided politically; they receive little benefit from Allied intervention.
Lenin and the Red Army are victorious, retaking Belorussia and Ukraine.