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notes and review for the midterm exam

Unitary Gov

highly centralized gov. where the capital city serves as a focus of power

Federal Gov.

a gov. where the state is organized into territories, which have control over gov. policies and funds Ex. US, Nigeria

Devolution

movement of power from the central to regional within the state

gerrymandering

drawing voting districts to benefit one group

define boundary

a document is created that indicates exact landmark

delimit boundary

cartogrophers place the boundary on the map

demarcate

physical boundary; wall, fence

mackinder's heartland theory

world dominance lies in Eurasia

Languages of Belgium

Flanders (north)- Flemish, Walloons (south)- French

Benelux

Belgium, Netherland, + Luxembourg in 1944 signed agreement of cooperation

concern of EU

euro, intigration, balance of power, Turkey

League of Nations

after ww1, US made it, but didn not last because US did not join

Euskara

lang. of the Basque ; unrelated to any other language

commodification

process of placing prices/selling something not previously bought/sold

toponym

place name

Khoisan Family

oldest langs in Subsahar Africa, "click" sound

Proto-Indo-European

ancestral Indo-Euro. language

Nostratic

P-I-E's ancient ancestor

Isogloss

boundary where languistic feature occurs. ex- pop, soda, coke

Standard Italian

Italian spoken in Florence + Tuscany

Invasion and Succession

new immigrants move to areas occupied by older immigrant groups ex- NY, Puerto Ricans "invade" Jew Harlem

Milwakee, Wisc.

most segregated city in U.S

Heirachial diffusion

starts somewhere big, goes to other big cities, follows patter ex- fashion

time-space compression

how quickly innovations difuse& refers to how interlinked two places are through transport/communication

neolocalism

invigorating old cultures in modern world

mortality rate

the rate at which people are dying by #s in a time period

biggest World Pop. Clusters

East Asia, South Asia, Europe, North America

absolute location

determined by frame of reference

relative location

describes a place in relation to other human or physical features

Wallerstein

made 3-teir structure of the world: core, periphery, semi-periphery

Tibetan Buddhism

splintered from Hinduism 2500+ yrs ago. Siddhartha- Buddha; enlightened one

monolingual states

only 1 spoken language. ex- Japan, Uruguay, Denamrk, Portugal, Poland, Lesotho

Globalization

a set of processes that are increasing interactions, deepening relationships, and heightening interdependence without regard to country borders

Themes of Geography

Location, Human-Environment Interactions, Region, Place, Movement

Malthus

worried about pop. growth and resources

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