Chapter 4

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The world's most abundant fossil fuel is ________.

coal

Solar radiation makes several other energy sources possible, including ________.

wind energy

Coal continues to be the main fuel used to generate electricity in the United States. This is partially because ________.

the country has such large reserves of coal

Many industrialized nations have their economies closely tied to imported fossil fuels. One important consideration is that ________.

the economy can be disrupted by the decisions made in fuel exporting nations

Biofuels ________.

can be created by microbial action or burned directly as wood or dung

Nuclear power plants ________.

experienced the most growth during the 1970s and 1980s

Which of the following are documented negative impacts of dams?

flooding, habitat destruction, alteration of river sediment deposition

Ultimately, all biofuels are ________, because they are the result of ________.

solar; photosynthesis

The largest problem with adopting the new technology of renewable resources is ________.

that the start-up costs may be high

The primary motivation to develop the new renewable energy sources comes from ________.

concerns over diminishing fossil fuel supplies and negative environmental impacts of fossil fuel use

The human population is approximately ________.

6.9 billion

During which time period did the world's population more than double?

1950-2000

Replacement fertility ________.

is equal to 2.1 in stable human populations

Which of the following factors drives TFR down?

education

A country with ________ is not expected to grow quickly in the near future.

high female literacy

America's age-structure diagram ________.

reflects an aging population

According to the IPAT model, technology that enhances our acquisition of minerals, fossil fuels, timber, and ocean fish ________.

increases environmental impact

Looking at the figure, you are able to determine ________.

that the population in the part (b) is growing rapidly

What is the population in part (b) likely to experience soon?

resource depletion and decreased quality of life

The population in part (a) suggests that its Total Fertility Rate (TFR)h is ________.

less than replacement rate

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