History- 1st Sem

119 terms by katd 

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shrine

areas dedicated to honor gods and goddesses

fresco

water color paintings

Trojan War

war in 1250 b.c. between Myceneans and Troy

trade

Success of Minoans was based on

economic rivalry

Trojan War may have been caused by

polis

a Greek city-state

acropolis

high part of a city, with temples

phalanx

a military formation of foot soldiers

tyrant

someone who gains power by force

legislature

law making body

aristocracy

rule by a heredity landowning elite

Athenian democracy

Democracy that gave more people a say in government than other ancient civilizations

culture

One factor that helped unify all the Greek city-states

alliance

a formal agreement between states to cooperate

direct democracy

when citizens take part in day-to-day governmental affairs

stipend

a fixed salary paid to people who held offices in government

ostracism

process to remove people who were considered a threat to their democracy

jury

a group of citizens who make the final decision in a trial

the Delian League was formed

What was one result of the Greek victory against the Persians

the Spartans didn't like the Athenian domination

the cause of the Peloponnesian War

Sparta defeated the Athens

When the Pelopennesian War ended...

philosopher

a Greek word meaning "lover of wisdom"

logic

rational thinking

Socrates

a philosopher sentenced to death for his views

Parthenon

a temple dedicated to the goddess of Athena

Herodotus

the "Father of History" in the Western world

reason and observation

Greek philosophers believed they could discover the laws of the universe through..

heliocentric

In a ______ solar system, the sun, not the earth, is at the center

assassination

the murder of a public figure

Phillip II

he gained the throne of Mycenae

Alexandria

this city was the canter of learning and the arts

conquer the Persian empire

After conquering Greece, Phillip II's dream was to...

he died

Alexander's career as a conqueror came to a hault when...

the spread of Greek culture

Alexander's most lasting achievement was...

blending of cultures

Alexander encouraged...

mathematicians

Pythagoras and Euclid were outstanding Hellenistic...

patrician

a member of the Roman landholding upper class

veto

to block a law

tribune

an official elected by plebeians to protect their interests

republic

a form of government in which the people elect some of the officials

plebeian

a member of the Roman lower class

fertile plains

Which geographic factor supported Italy's growth?

dictator

During a war, the Roman senate could choose a temporary...

adapted from Greek religion

Many Roman gods and goddesses were...

imperialism

control over foreign lands

latifundia

huge estates

Julius Caesar

absolute ruler of Rome

census

population count

Hadrian

good emperor who codified laws

Augustus

the ruler of Rome at the beginning of the empire

mosaic

a picture made from small bits of stone or glass

satirize

make fun of

aqueducts

carried water to Roman cities

Virgil

the author of Aeneid

engineering

the application of science and mathematics to develop useful structures

Greek

To which civilization did Roman culture owe the greatest debt?

historians

Livy and Tacitus were best known as Roman...

concrete

What building materials did Romans use for the rounded dome roofs they developed?

martyr

a person who suffers or dies for his or her beliefs

apostle

a Greek word meaning "a person sent forth"

clergy

people who conduct religious services

heresy

a belief contrary to official Church teaching

Paul

the man most responsible for spreading Christianity

the Jews left Judea

What was a result of the Jewish rebellion in A.D. 66?

bring salvation to the world

Jesus proclaimed that his mission was to...

Diocletian

divided Roman empire

inflation

rapid rise in prices

Constantinople

Constantine capital

Huns

violent asian nomads

mercenary

soldier serves for pay

the divided empire

Which was a major factor in the decline of Rome?

the rise of the Christian church

What factor helped preserve elements of Roman civilization?

covenant

Israelites believes that God made a ___ with Abraham

patriarchal

In a __ society, men hold the legal and moral authority

Torah

The first five books of the Hebrew Bible

prophets

Spiritual leaders who interpreted God's will to the Israelites

monotheistic

The Israelite's ____ religion made them unique in the ancient Middle East

David

Who united the twelve tribes of Israel into one kingdom?

monotheistic

How are Judaism, Christianity, and Islam similar?

artifact

an object made by humans

anthropology

the study of the origins and development of people and their societies

historian

someone who studies the past

culture

a society's was of life

archaeology

the study of past cultures through their remains

how ancient people lived

Artifacts play a key role in the study of...

Catalhuyuk

One of the first Neolithic villages

animism

the belief that spirits and other forces live in animals, objects, or dreams

Paleolithic Period

Another name for the Old stone age

Neolithic Period

period when people learned how to farm

nomad

moves from place to place in search of food

empires

some rulers of early civilizations conquered many cities and villages and created these

scribes

special workers who could only read and write

artisans

skilled craftspeople

polytheistic

believing in many gods

near major rivers

the earliest civilizations to develop were...

Sumer

the world's first civilization

cuneiform

the earliest known system of writing

hierarchy

a system for ranking groups

Fertile Crescent

a region named for its rich soils and wheat fields

ziggurat

a large stepped platform for religious ceremonies

trade

Sumerian cities became rich due to...

clay tablets

Sumerian scribes wrote wedge shaped marks on...

colonies

Phoenicians set up ___ around the Mediterranean to promote trade

Sargon

the worlds first empire was created by him

Nebuchadnezzar

The king who rebuilt the great city of Babylon

cataract

waterfall

delta

triangular land area

dynasty

a ruling family

bureaucracy

system of government

vizier

chief minister

along the banks of the Nile River

Egyptian civilizations developed...

vizier

had responsibility for overseeing irrigation, tax collection, and farming in ancient Egypt

Thutmose III

Egypt's empire expanded the farthest during the reign of...

Osiris

the god who ruled over the underworld and the Nile

hieroglyphics

the use of symbols to represent words and ideas

Amon-Re

the god from whom the pharoahs claimed their right to rule

papyrus

a writing material made from a river plant

decipher

to figure out the meaning of something

farmers

many people in ancient Egypt were

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