Sensation and Perception

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In additive color mixing, the combination of red, green, and blue creates ________; in subtractive color mixing, the combination of red, yellow, and blue creates ________.

white; black

The organization of two-dimensional retinal images into three-dimensional perceptions is called:

depth perception

The convergence of parallel lines provides the distance cue known as:

linear perspective

The perceptual tendency to group together stimuli that are near each other is called:

proximity

In order to give greater depth to his painting, Shakir enveloped the background landscape in a misty haze. Shakir was making use of the distance cue known as:

relative clarity

The tendency to see all the individual spokes in a bicycle wheel as part of a larger single unit best illustrates the principle of:

continuity

Kinesthesis refers to the:

system for sensing the position and movement of muscles, tendons, and joints.

The local fire department sounds the 12 o'clock whistle. The process by which your ears convert the sound waves from the siren into neural impulses is an example of:

transduction

Cones and rods are to vision as ________ are to audition.

hair cells

The cocktail party effect provides an example of:

the phi phenomenon

The phenomenon of color constancy best demonstrates that:

an object's perceived color is influenced by its surrounding objects.

As people grow older, they are most likely to need glasses because:

the lens loses its ability to change shape readily.

The green-colored ham and eggs had such a strange appearance that they tasted terrible to Sam. This illustrates the importance of:

sensory interaction.

Cocking your head would be most useful for detecting the ______ of a sound.

location

The sequentially flashing Christmas tree lights appeared to generate pulsating waves of motion. This best illustrates:

the phi phenomenon

The ability to simultaneously recognize the color, shape, size, and speed of an oncoming automobile best illustrates:

parallel processing

When informed that a brief imperceptible message would be flashed repeatedly during a popular TV program, many viewers reported feeling strangely hungry or thirsty during the show. Since the imperceptible message had nothing to do with hunger or thirst, viewers' strange reactions best illustrate:

a placebo effect

Visual information is processed by:

ganglion cells before it is processed by feature detectors.

While a student provided directions to a construction worker, two experimenters rudely interrupted by passing between them carrying a door. The student's failure to notice that the construction worker was replaced by a different person during this interruption illustrates:

change blindness

Brightness is to light as ________ is to sound.

amplitude

Although the mountains were over 30 miles away, the morning sky was so clear that Showana thought they were only half the distance away. This best illustrates the importance of:

relative clarity

The fact that people who are colorblind to red and green may still see yellow is most easily explained by:

the opponent-process theory

Felix was so preoccupied with his girlfriend's good looks that he failed to perceive any of her less admirable characteristics. This best illustrates the dangers of:

selective attention

On the day she is to be interviewed for an important new position, Rachel awakens with a severe toothache. During the interview she feels no pain; not until 30 minutes later does she become aware again of the troublesome toothache. Rachel's experience is best explained by:

the gate-control theory

With her eyes closed and her nose plugged, Chandra was unable to taste the difference between an onion and a pear. Her experience best illustrates the importance of:

sensory interaction

Stereotypes are mental conceptions that can strongly influence the way we interpret the behaviors of individuals belonging to specific racial or ethnic groups. A stereotype is most similar to a:

perceptual set

Which of the following would play a role in quickly alerting you to a gas leak in your home?

olfactory receptors

People are more likely to perceive a figure and ground illustration as reversible if they are told it is reversible. This best illustrates the importance of:

top-down processing

Damage to the fovea would have the greatest effect on:

visual acuity

The visual cliff is a laboratory device for testing ________ in infants.

depth perception

A gestalt is best described as a(n):

organized whole

Giulio's bag of marbles is twice as heavy as Jim's. If it takes 5 extra marbles to make Jim's bag feel heavier, it will take 10 extra marbles to make Giulio's bag feel heavier. This best illustrates:

Weber's law

After listening to your high-volume car stereo for 15 minutes, you fail to realize how loudly the music is blasting. This best illustrates:

sensory adaption

Which of the following play the biggest role in our feeling dizzy and unbalanced after a thrilling roller coaster ride?

semicircular canals

Perceptual adaptation refers to the:

grouping of stimuli into smooth, uninterrupted patterns.

Which of the following is true of psychics who have worked with police departments in an effort to solve difficult crimes?

They have reported visions that are no more accurate than guesses.

The detection and encoding of stimulus energies by the nervous system is called:

sensation

Almost half the birds in the yard were brown cardinals and the rest were bright red cardinals, so Jimmy perceived them as two distinct groups of birds. This best illustrates the principle of:

similarity

According to the opponentprocess theory, cells that are stimulated by exposure to:

green light are inhibited by exposure to red light.

According to the opponent-process theory, cells that are stimulated by exposure to ________ light are inhibited by exposure to ________ light.

yellow; blue

The apparent narrowing of a river as it flows directly away from you into the distance best illustrates the depth cue known as:

linear perspective.

Weber's law is relevant to an understanding of:

difference thresholds

Although Manuel was sitting right next to his parents, he smelled a skunk minutes before they did. Apparently, Manuel has a lower ________ for skunk odor than his parents have.

absolute threshold

Although college textbooks frequently cast a trapezoidal image on the retina, students typically perceive the books as rectangular objects. This illustrates the importance of:

shape constancy.

The perception of the letter "t" as two intersecting lines rather than as four nonintersecting lines illustrates the principle of:

continuity.

Holding two index fingers in front of the eyes can create the perception of a floating finger sausage. This best illustrates the effect of:

retinal disparity

Ms. Shields, a recent stroke victim, cannot consciously perceive the large book on the coffee table in front of her. Yet, when urged to identify the book, she correctly reads aloud the printed title on the book cover. Her response best illustrates:

blindsight

The area of the retina where the optic nerve leaves the eye is called the:

blind spot

A floating sea vessel is to the ocean water as ________ is to ________.

figure; ground

Bipolar cells are located in the:

retina

The impact of experience on perception is most clearly illustrated by:

perceptual adaption

As Sherod walked away from the camera, the image of his body filled a smaller area of the television screen. Nevertheless, viewers did not perceive Sherod as suddenly shrinking. This illustrates:

size constancy

The amplitude of electromagnetic waves determines the ________ of light.

wavelength

When Helen noticed that her classmates were all wearing expensive designer jeans, she suddenly perceived her own offbrand jeans to be very unattractive. This best illustrates the importance of:

context effects

Lightness constancy is most clearly facilitated by:

relative luminance

Because the two teams wore different-colored uniforms, Cheri perceived the ten basketball players as two distinct groups. This best illustrates the principle of:

similarity

When the soundtrack for a movie is played in the back of a classroom, students tend to perceive the sound as originating from the picture screen in the front of the room. This best illustrates:

visual capture

After a small section of his basilar membrane was damaged, Jason experienced a noticeable loss of hearing for high-pitched sounds only. Jason's hearing loss is best explained by the ________ theory.

place

Damage to the temporal lobe region of the brain essential for facial recognition produces a loss of:

perception

It wasn't until Clara heard some of her classmates laughing loudly during history class that she began to perceive the professor's ongoing lecture to be very funny. This provides an illustration of:

context effects

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