an act that breaks a law and causes harm to people or society in general
Personal freedoms, personal protections, and equality under the law are guaranteed by the Constitution, The Bill of Rights, and the laws.
USA Patriot Act
law passed due to 9/11 attacks; sought to prevent further terrorist attacks by allowing greater government access to electronic communications and other information; criticized by some as violating civil liberties
One who seeks to protect personal freedoms within the process of criminal justice
One who believes that under certain circumstances involving a criminal threat to public safety, the interests of society should take precedence over individual rights
the quality of being just or fair
fair treatment for all people in a society
the civil law, law of civil procedure, and the array of procedures and activities having to do w/private rights and remedies sought by civil action. Civil justice cannot be separated from social justice cuz the kind of justice enacted in out nations civil courts
the process of achieving justice through the application of the criminal law and through the workings of the criminal justice system
Administration of justice
People who carry out laws and makes sure everyone follows them
Criminal justice system
the system of police, courts, and prisons set up to deal with people who are accused of having committed a crime
a criminal justice perspective that assumes that the systems components work together harmoniously to achieve the social product we call justice
A criminal justice model in which the content of criminal law is determined by the groups that hold economic, political, and social power in a community.
A writ from a court commanding police to perform specified acts
a law enforcement or correctional administrative process offically recording an entry into detention after arrest and identifying the person, place, time, reason for arrest and arresting authority.
the legal system that allows an accused person to be temporarily released from custody (usually on condition that a sum of money guarantees their appearance at trial)
a critical stage of criminal proceedings when it is determined if probable cause exists to believe a crime has been committed and that the defendant committed it
a reasonable belief, known personally or through reliable sources, that a specific person has committed a crime
written accusation issued by a prosecutor against a defendant in criminal law
a formal complaint before a grand jury which charges the accused with one or more crimes
a group of jurors that vote on whether there is enough evidence to warrant a trial showing that a crime was indeed committed; need a 12 to 23 vote to go to trial
The first act in a criminal proceeding, in which the defendant is brought before a court to hear the charges against him or her and enter a plea of guilty or not guilty.
the examination in a court of law whether or not someone is guilty or not guilty of a crime
Prison terms for two or more offenses to be served one after the other. Example: Two five-year sentences and one three-year sentence, if served consecutively, result in a maximum of 13 years behind bars.
Constitutional guarantee that government must act according to established rules and cannot deprive persons of their rights with unfair actions
Crime control model
A criminal justice perspective that emphasizes the efficent arrest and conviction of criminal offenders
Due process model
a criminal justiced perspective that emphasizes individual rights at all stages of justice system processing
attempts by society to regulate people's thoughts and behavior
the scientific study of crime and criminal behavior and law enforcement
Evidence based practice
Evidence exists that shows doing something specific works.
recognition of past and present cultural diversity in American society coupled with efforts to promote the equality of all cultural traditions